Roman period or earlier and that similar multiple

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Roman period or earlier and that similar ‘multiple estates’ could be recognized inEngland (but see Gregson1985). Likewise, Bonney (1979) argued that a relationshipbetween Early Anglo-Saxon burials and parish boundaries meant that the latter wereRoman or earlier in date (but see Goodier1984and Reynolds2002), while Rodwell(1978) claimed that whole field systems may have survived in use since the Romanperiod. One example both of the impact that the ‘New Archaeology’ had on medievalscholarship, and the emerging trend towards seeing continuity in the landscape, is theuse of techniques of spatial analysis borrowed from geography (eg Figure11.3;Burrow1982, fig31). Thiessen polygons, for example, were used to try and reconstructthe territories associated with hillforts reoccupied in the early medieval period thatseemed to show a close relationship with later parish boundaries. It is probably fairto say that theoretical archaeology has not had the same impact on the study of themedieval landscape as has been the case in the prehistoric period, though notableexceptions include Jope’s (1972a;1972b) work published at the height of interest inthe ‘New Archaeology’, and subsequent studies have continued to show the potentialfor more processual and post-processual approaches (eg Rahtz1983;Austin andThomas1990;Johnson1996;2002;and see Chris Gerrard this volume).In1979the Society for Landscape Studies was founded, as a reaction against thehighly empirical tradition that had developed within medieval archaeology, andreflecting the desire of many to develop a more holistic approach towards landscaperesearch. By the1980s the interdisciplinary principles and a larger-scale vision oflandscape archaeology were becoming more commonplace in the study of all periods,though the approaches in the prehistoric and historic periods were somewhatdiCerent. A tradition of large-scale programmes of archaeological survey andexcavation with a largely prehistoric and Romano-British focus developed in theheartland of British field archaeology — central southern England and in particularthe chalk downs (eg East Hampshire Survey:Shennan1985;East Berkshire Survey:Ford1987;Maddle Farm Project:GaCney and Tingle1989;Stonehenge EnvironsProject:Richards1990;Cranborne Chase:Barrettet al1991;Vale of the WhiteHorse Survey:Tingle1991;Linear Ditches Project:Bradleyet al1994;DaneburyEnvirons Project:CunliCe2000). Those with a greater interest in the medieval periodtended to focus on smaller-scale parish surveys that integrate the study of maps,documents, and even standing buildings with programmes of archaeological survey,
understanding the medieval landscape235Figure 11.3.Possible early estates associated with the early medieval reoccupation of the hillfortat Cadbury Congresbury in Somerset. Ideas such as Thiessen polygons, borrowed from anotherdiscipline (geography) were typical of the ‘New Archaeology’ that came rather late to the study ofthe medieval period (after Rahtzet al1992, fig162).

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