o Men are systematically advantaged Shrage on prostitution I reject accounts of

O men are systematically advantaged shrage on

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take maternity/paternity leave, pick up sick child, etc. o Men are systematically advantaged Shrage on prostitution "I reject accounts of commercial sex which posit cross-cultural and trans-historical causal mechanisms to explain the existence of prostitution or which assume that the activities we designate as "sex" have a universal meaning and progress" (Shrage 74) o Specific culturals had designated prostitutes for a reason (temple, religion, etc.) Seen as a woman's attempt at atoning for something she had done, after a while seen as worthy/acceptable again "In short, female prostitution oppresses women, not because some women who participate in it "suffer in the eyes of society" but because its organized practice testifies to and perpetuates socially hegemonic beliefs which oppress all women in many domains of their lives" (Shrage 77) o Looked down upon o Not respected o Stigma/mark stays with them; affects future jobs, relationships, etc. o Hegemonic: dominance over others Shrage's 'Socially Hegemonic Beliefs' 1. Universal possession of a potent sex drive - doesn't directly explain; would have to already make the argument that prostitution itself is hegemonic first 1. "Natural" dominance of men - if man is dominant, woman becomes subordinate/objectified; caters exclusively a male cliental Charecteristics in society (work/wages, etc.) men have a bigger share of respect, positions of power, etc. 1. Sexual contact pollutes women 1. Reification of sexual practice Malm on paid surrogacy Paid surrogacy is morally permissible. o Amounts to buying/selling of children Payment is for services, not children Ketchum - payment doesn't make custody Diane, Erick, Francine, Gloria situation (donation of ovum, Diane and Erick still parents) o Renting a womb It's not wrong to rent out part of your body. Payment for X to use X's body v. paying Y to use X's body o Exploitation of poor woman Evidence shows most surrogates aren't poor Many reasons besides poverty to be a surrogate o Reduces adoption
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o Transfer of custody rights
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