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culturally with its fleet, making allies with other city-states in the Delian League against the enemy Persia, and with Pericles' favoritism of art and literature. At the same time Athenians became more and more imperialistic and menacing to other states. The tension that followed led to the Peloponnesian War. During the war, a plague hit Athens. Up to half the Athenian population died and one of them Pericles.Delian LeagueIn 478 BC Sparta withdrew from alliance that had been formed to oppose Persia. In response, many of the newly liberated Greek states met on the island of Delos in 478 BC and formed an alliance, known as the Delian League and continued the war to take further vengeance on Persian. Athens was the head of the league and determined which member should supply ships to the navy and determined which member should contribute money. Athenian rule and expansion of their empire starts to concern Sparta. Athenian domination became unmistakable near 454 BC, when the league transferred its treasury from Delos to Athens. The cash contributions were now tribute to Athens, and the alliance of equals had become an Athenian Empire. Peace of NiciasIn 421 BC, the tenth year of the Archidamian War, Athens and Sparta signed a fifty year peace treaty and joined in a defensive alliance soon afterwards. This peace is commonly referred to as the Peace of Nicias, after an Athenian statesman who was its chief architect. The agreement did not achieve its ostensible aims. Most of the treaty’s provisions were completely disregarded or only partially fulfilled. Thucydides called this time a suspicious truce. Athens’s affair of Melos and its Syracuse expedition reopened the Peloponnesian war seven years later. Athenian and Spartan troops faced each other at Mantinea. Philip IIMacedonia emerged as a leading power under the reign of Philip II, who reigned from 359-336 BC. He consolidated and strengthened the Macedonian kingdom by building up a powerful army and planning a program of conquest. Philip II added poleis and large territories to his kingdom and extended his influence to Greece. His first attempt is known as the Third Sacred War to restore the oracle of Apollo at Delphi. He signs the Peace of Philocrates in alliance with Athens only to be broken by Athens itself which led to a battle in Chaeronea. Philip is successful in this battle and creates the League of Corinth and declares war on Persia. His plans are postponed as Philip II is assassinated in 336 BC. Upon death, Alexander his son succeeds him.Alexander the GreatAlexander the great was the successor of Philip II. He reigns from 336-323 BC and creates the largest empire the ancient world has known. He begins his conquests by declaring war against Darius III, king of Persia. They battle at the Granicus River and Alexander the Great proves to be successful which gives him control over western Asia Minor and eventually all of Asia Minor. He advances toward Egypt where he is proclaimed as the son of Zeus by an Egyptian priest. Alexander takes it literally and claims himself