O second the ability to consider different kinds of

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o Second, the ability to consider different kinds of knowledge simultaneously is increased, which makes it possible to think of new combinations of knowledge. o Third, more metacognitive strategies are available for applying or gaining knowledge, such as planning and monitoring one’s own comprehension; these strategies make it possible to think more critically about what one is learning. According to Keating, critical thinking in adolescence requires a foundation of skills and knowledge obtained in childhood, along with an educational environment in adolescence that promotes and values critical thinking Can Adolescents Make Competent Decisions? p.86 Making independent decisions is one of the qualities that most adolescents and emerging adults in a variety of cultures consider to be a crucial part of becoming an adult Legal and political implicates in this debated o Ex. Should adolescents have the right to make independent decisions about using contraception, obtaining an abortion, pursing medical treatments o Ex. Adolescents are treated under a different legal system reflecting a perception that adolescents should not be held responsible for bad decisions in the same way adults are Studies indicate that competence in decision making varies substantially with age . p.87 o Compared with preadolescent children, early adolescents generally identify a wider range of possible choices, are better at anticipating the consequences of the possible choices, and are better at evaluating and integrating information. o In each of these respects, however, early adolescents are less skilled than late adolescents or emerging adults Most studies comparing adolescents and adults have found that adolescents take more risks than adults on “hot tasks” that have immediate outcome feedback on rewards and losses o Adolescents are influence more by strong emotions and the presence of friends In other words, even though adolescents may be able to show the same level of cognitive ability as adults in making a decision, adolescents may make different decisions because they are more likely than adults to be affected by psychosocial factors, such as the emotions of the moment and the desire to be accepted by peers. It is especially adolescents ages 15 and younger whose decision-making competence is impaired by psychosocial immaturity It should be emphasized that scholars on decision making agree that even in adulthood, the process of making decisions is rarely based purely on reason and is often inaccurate because of reasoning errors or the influence of social and emotional factor o Decision-making abilities may improve from childhood through adolescence and into emerging adulthood and beyond, but at all ages the process of decision making is often subject to errors and distortions.

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