Testing of the hypothesis 7:
i.e. The rapid rise in the population levels and the accompanied problems like
deterioration of urban infrastructure pose challenges which have to be understood
by the leaders.
Note:
The hypothesis 7 is being supported by question numbers 3, 4, 5, 12, 18, 28,
29, 30.
Setting up of the hypothesis:
Null hypothesis H
0
: The above hypothesis is acceptable.
Alternative hypothesis H
1
: The above hypothesis is not acceptable.

199
Calculation:
TABLE NUMBER 9
(CALCULATION FOR TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS 7)
χ
2
=
∑
( O
i
– E
i
)
2
/ E
i
= 1.320
χ
2
calculated value is 1.320 and
χ
2
table value is 13.362 at 8 d.f and 10% l.o.s.
χ
2
table value is 15.507 at 8 d.f and
5% l.o.s.
χ
2
table value is 20.090 at 8 d.f and
1% l.o.s.
Conclusion:
As per statistical theory, whenever the calculated value is less than table value
then the null hypothesis is acceptable. Hence null hypothesis H
o
is accepted and
there by the said hypothesis is acceptable at different level of significances,
respectively 1%, 5%, 10% and it is perfectly accepted. Hence the hypothesis, the
rapid rise in the population levels and the accompanied problems like
deterioration of urban infrastructure pose challenges which have to be understood
by the leaders is statistically tested and valid.
Qno , option
Obs freq (Oi)
Exp freq ( Ei)
(Oi - Ei)
2
((Oi -Ei)
2
)/Ei
3,a
784
776.000
64.000
0.082
4,a
776
776.000
0.000
0.000
5,a
792
776.000
256.000
0.330
12,a
760
776.000
256.000
0.330
18,a
784
776.000
64.000
0.082
28,a
768
776.000
64.000
0.082
29,a
760
776.000
256.000
0.330
30,a
784
776.000
64.000
0.082
Total
6208
1.320

200
Testing of the hypothesis 8:
i.e. The increasing competition between governments and corporations for the
control of natural resources/food grains and strategic energy sources would lead to
increased conflicts and riots. The leaders need to have an understanding and
awareness and implement solutions on these problems.
Note:
The hypothesis 8 is being supported by question numbers 3, 4, 5, 11, 18, 28,
29, 30.
Setting up of the hypothesis:
Null hypothesis H
0
: The above hypothesis is acceptable.
Alternative hypothesis H
1
: The above hypothesis is not acceptable.
Calculation:
TABLE NUMBER 10
(CALCULATION FOR TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS 8)
Qno , option
Obs freq (Oi)
Exp freq ( Ei)
(Oi - Ei)
2
((Oi -Ei)
2
)/Ei
3,a
784
777.000
49.000
0.063
4,a
776
777.000
1.000
0.001
5,a
792
777.000
225.000
0.290
11,a
768
777.000
81.000
0.104
18,a
784
777.000
49.000
0.063
28,a
768
777.000
81.000
0.104
29,a
760
777.000
289.000
0.372
30,a
784
777.000
49.000
0.063
Total
6216
1.060

201
χ
2
=
∑
( O
i
– E
i
)
2
/ E
i
= 1.060
χ
2
calculated value is 1.060 and
χ
2
table value is 13.362 at 8 d.f and 10% l.o.s.
χ
2
table value is 15.507 at 8 d.f and
5% l.o.s.
χ
2
table value is 20.090 at 8 d.f and
1% l.o.s.
Conclusion:
As per statistical theory, whenever the calculated value is less than table value
then the null hypothesis is acceptable. Hence null hypothesis H
o
is accepted and
there by the said hypothesis is acceptable at different level of significances,
respectively 1%, 5%, 10% and it is perfectly accepted. Hence the hypothesis, the
increasing competition between governments and corporations for the control of
natural resources/food grains and strategic energy sources would lead to increased
conflicts and riots. The leaders need to have an understanding and awareness and
implement solutions on these problems is statistically tested and valid.

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