Been unwilling to cooperate with medical teams or

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been unwilling to cooperate with medical teams or with those responsible for monitoring contacts. At the extreme, health workers and people involved in tracing contacts have been threatened or physically assaulted (WHO, 2015a), requiring the use of security personnel for protection. Control efforts in the epicentre countries have been hindered by community resistance. Several factors account for this. First, fear and misconception Table 3: Infrastructures and development indicators in the epicentre countries Indicators Guinea Sierra Leone Liberia Year Value Year Value Year Value Literacy rate, youth total (% of people ages 15-24) 2010 31.4 2012 62.7 2007 49.1 Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above) 2010 25.3 2012 44.5 2007 42.9 School enrolment, primary (% net) 2012 74.4 2011 40.6 School enrolment, secondary (% net) 2011 30.4 Prevalence of anaemia among children (% of children under 5) 2011 75.7 2011 74.1 2011 71.5 Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49) 2013 1.7 2013 1.6 2013 1.1 Mortality rate, neonatal (per 1,000 live births) 2013 32.8 2013 44.3 2013 25.6 Mortality rate, under-five (per 1,000 live births) 2013 100.7 2013 160.6 2013 71.1 Immunization, DPT (% of children ages 12-23 months) 2013 63.0 2013 92.0 2013 89.0 Immunization, measles (% of children ages 12-23 months) 2013 62.0 2013 83.0 2013 74.0 Hospital beds (per 1,000 people) 2011 0.3 2006 0.4 2010 0.8 Physicians (per 1,000 people) 2010 0.1 2010 0.0 2010 0.0 Lifetime risk of maternal death (%) 2013 3.3 2013 4.7 2013 3.2 Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access) 2012 18.9 2012 13.0 2012 16.8 Newborns protected against tetanus (%) 2013 80.0 2013 87.0 2013 91.0 Prevalence of undernourishment (% of population) 2012 15.2 2012 29.4 2012 28.6 Life expectancy at birth, female (years) 2012 56.6 2012 45.5 2012 61.2 Life expectancy at birth, male (years) 2012 55.1 2012 45.2 2012 59.3 Life expectancy at birth, total (years) 2012 55.8 2012 45.3 2012 60.2 Health expenditure per capita (current US$) 2012 32.0 2012 95.7 2012 65.5 Health expenditure, public (% of GDP) 2012 1.8 2012 2.5 2012 4.6 Improved water source (% of population with access) 2012 74.8 2012 60.1 2012 74.6 Sources: World Development Indicators Database 2014. SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE IN WEST AFRICAN COUNTRIES
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19 about the unfamiliar disease play an important role. Second, the inability of ambulances and burial teams to respond quickly provoked confrontation from the affected communities. Third, little or no information about patients’ conditions, outcomes of their treatment and places of burial also created misgivings. Fourth, ignorance fuels resistance. The perception that spraying chlorine was actually spreading the disease created fear that degenerated into physical assault of EVD workers. And finally, anger was sparked among caregivers who had not been for weeks or months. Sometimes, they were asked to work under unsafe conditions, in contrast to their right to work under equitable and satisfactory environments while receiving equal pay for equal work. Table 4: Infrastructures and development indicators in non-epicentre West African countries Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Côte d'Ivoire The Gambia Ghana Guinea- Bissau Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Togo Literacy rate, youth total (% of people ages 15-24) 42.4 39.3 98.1 48.3 69.4 85.7 74.3 47.1 23.5 66.4 66.0 79.9 Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above) 28.7 28.7 85.3 41.0 52.0 71.5 56.7 33.6 15.5 51.1 52.1 60.4 School enrolment, primary (% net) 94.9 66.4 97.2 61.9 70.9 87.1 69.8 68.7 62.8 63.9 73.3 90.4 School enrolment, secondary (% net) 19.7 69.1 51.5 34.5 12.2
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