-> President Hoover supports this idea, he wants people as “constantly moving happiness machines.” When the people are happy it is good for the economy and political stability (can keep the powers in the government if people are happy because they will not revolt) Beynays becomes rich and famous But then there is a stock market crash in 1929 -> the consumer boom that Bernays worked so hard for, falls. In Europe there is unrest because they are afraid of the effects for them. • Civilisation was built to control dangerous animal forces. The idea of human freedom at the heart of democracy was impossible. Humans must always be controlled and thus always discontented. 1929 – Great Depression and street battles The Nazis become interested in Bernay’s work because if the dangerous forces could be controlled and are there, could they not just as well be released? Couldn’t they then be channeled into strengthening group identity? Also Joseph Goebbels -> fascinated by ideas of crowd psychology and how to manipulate the masses. Believes that its not the people in charge but their desires. He was interested in the American “New Deal” by Roosevelt: the idea that the state was needed to manage the economy through large infrastructure projects President Roosevelt - did not believe this was true, he thought the people could be trusted to give their opinions if a rational way if asked in a straight forward and factual manner. -> turned to George Gallup: inventor of the opinion poll. - Introduced the “New Deal”: The programs were in response to the Great Depression, and focused on what historians refer to as the "3 Rs", Relief, Recovery, and Reform: relief for the unemployed and poor, recovery of the economy to normal levels, and reform of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression. - Big businesses don’t like the “New Deal”, they fear too much state control. Many hire Bernays in order to fight back: create emotional attachments between the public and big businesses -> says that it is business, not politics, that build America and is close to the people. After WWI: - Feel even more attracted to the Freudian view after the horrors of the holocaust -> confirms that there were dangerous forces inside people that had terrible consequences if unleashed and they needed to be contained
- Psychoanalysis is used to analyze combat trops: Breakdowns caused by memoires triggered by the combat not the fighting itself -> seems to confirm the idea that there are violent, irrational drives below the surface - It was so easy for the irrational to break through and infect the whole population: in Germany millions followed Hitler Anna Freud, Freud’s daughter - Becomes leader of the psychoanalytic movement - Believed that psycholanalysis could control basic instincts -> we teach children to conform to the rules of society which she believes is the best way to tame those uncontrollable desires - This could be harmful: homosexuals were encouraged to conform to the heterosexual principles of normal life Growth of Psychoanalysis -
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- Fall '19