dominant and nutrition related disorders have become serious problems and

Dominant and nutrition related disorders have become

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dominant, and nutrition-related disorders "have become serious problems and appear to be the consequence of dietary and lifestyle changes" (Englberger, Marks and Fitzgerald 2002:5). Yet, in many locales, as traditional foods became more costly relative to imports, less available, and were seen as taking longer to prepare than imported food sources, introduced foods came to be seen and experienced not as foreign goods but as familiar and emotionally charged constituents of the (emergent) local cuisine by assuming the role of what have come to be called "comfort foods." There is a certain irony here in that comfort foods, those pregnant with deep sentimental attachments, have been analyzed as a type of self- medicating response to emotional stress of changing lifestyles and as a key contributor to the global epidemic of obesity (Dallman et al. 2005). In Ghana, for example, which became a market for 1400 metric tons of poultry from the U.S., mostly turkey tails (Crawford et al. 2010), they locally were dubbed Chofi (alternately spelled tsofi ), and achieved status as an indigenized component in a desired local meal, as noted by Ghanaian journalist Ato Kwamena Dadzie (2010): 'Chofi' is the best accompaniment, with 'shitor' [a tomato and fish-based hot sauce], for fried yams. It's cheap. It's filling. And it's good to share. Almost every Ghanaian has enjoyed 'chofi' at one point or another. Yes, it's a national delicacy. As one of the street foods available in Ghana, fried turkey tails joined the ranks of other items being hawked to cars by street vendors and sold at roadside fast-food stands. In this capacity, they entered into the informal economy and became a critical source of livelihood, primarily among women in the eastern regions of the country. As described by Nana Mansa, Chairperson of the Akuapem South Turkey Tail Traders Association in Ghana, chofi has allowed women involved in the local trade to pay for the education of their children and to afford their utility bills (Modern Ghana 2010). Among some Pacific island communities, turkey tails similarly have won a place as a desired and familiar food item. In Samoa, they came to be called mulipipi . Notes Apaula Brown, a Samoan living in Washington, D.C.: We usually boil the turkey tails first to get rid of the fat and then we chop the turkey tails into pieces… If we want to cook it in a chop suey, we mix it with vegetables; it's delicious (Barclay 2013). Turkey tail were incorporated into the Samoan diet via various dishes, such as umu (barbeque), fried in soy sauce, or broiled in soup. In Hawai'i, tails are wrapped securely in taro leaves ( luau ) with fish and steamed to make a combo-dish called turkey tail laulau (leaf, leaf) that commonly is eaten with sweet potatoes or rice. In this recipe, turkey tail replaced the traditional use of pork and steaming replaced the use of an underground hot rock oven ( imu ). Sarah Munn (2010), who grew up on the Pacific island of Yap, describes the necessary ingredients of a Yapese party in her experience as follows:
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