BIOL
BIO 2160 Exam 1.2.docx

They are saturated with hydrogen lard grease fat o

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They are saturated with hydrogen (lard, grease, fat) o Makes the structure more compact and dense o Have as many hydrogens they can have Unsaturated fats are liquid at body temperature. They have at least one C=C bond (olive oil, vegetable oil)
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8 o Less likely to leave deposits on the insides of arteries and veins o Less likely to cause heart disease Cookies Cookies that are chewy usually have lots of saturated fats while cookies that are crunchy usually have unsaturated fats Butter vs. vegetable oils o When making cookies at home, you have the choice to basically die today or later on meaning you have the choice between butter or vegetable oil Phospholipids Two fatty acids + phosphate group attached to glycerol backbone Dominant component of cell membranes o Hydrophilic heads on the outside and hydrophobic tails on the inside Contains hydrophilic (polar = water loving) and hydrophobic (nonpolar = water hating) regions o Hydrophilic heads o Hydrophobic tails Steroids All have the same basic structure o Hormones (estrogen and testosterone), cholesterol Three 6 carbon rings + one 5 carbon ring Mostly nonpolar Most come from hormones o Proteins: most dynamic Composed of multiple amino acids (amino acid polymers ) Sequence of amino acids is determined by DNA through processes of transcription and translation The order is extremely important Composed of amino group, a carboxyl group and a functional group or R group (R stands for radical or changing group) There are 20 R groups and therefore 20 different amino acids R group determines all the properties of the amino groups The R groups give amino acids different properties (polar, nonpolar) Our body makes about 11 of these amino acids and the other 9 come from what we eat The 9 amino acids that our body doesn’t make are called essential amino acids; these are the amino acids our body needs The 11 amino acids that our body makes are called nonessential amino acids because our body already has them Levels of protein structure Its structure is its shape; its shape determines its function Primary structure o The amino acid sequence o Determines all the other levels of protein structure Secondary structure o Every little twist, turn, fold, or coil that is repeated on the protein Tertiary structure
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9 o 3 dimensional shape of the protein o What you are looking at when you are looking at a protein Quaternary structure o More than one subunit o Ex: hemoglobin Protein structure Secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure contribute to 3D shape of protein Protein 3D structure is diverse 3D structure of protein determines function Because bonds between amino acids and peptides can be weak, proteins can be denatured (broken apart) by heat, changes in pH, etc.
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