Johann Pachelbel (Nuremburg, Bavaria 1653-1706)•Organ virtuoso•Lutheran Church musician and teacher•One of greatest composers of the generation before J.S. Bach (1685-1750) and Georg F. Handel (1685-1759)•Lutheran Church musician and teacher
Johann Pachelbel “Canon in D Major”•A “canon” gained its modern meaning in the 16thcentury •”Canon” – polyphonic treatment of two or more voices•Similar to a “round” – with imitative polyphony. In a “round” the parts can restart/repeat and go “round and round”•“Canon” was often associated with a “cantus firmus” – or melody that was heard throughout – usually in the bass.
Johann Pachelbel “Canon in D Major”•Originally for 3 violins and basso continuo and paired with a “Gigue” (dance movement)•Entire work on 8 note pattern in the bass line ostinato/ground bass•Scholars do not know the reason/occasion for which the work was written•Genre: Canon•Features: Imitative polyphony
Johann Pachelbel “Canon in D Major”in Popular Culture•The 4 harmony chords on which the Canon is based, serves as the foundation for many – MANY popular songs◦Cellist Rant◦4 Chords to All Songs –Ever!
Johann Pachelbel “Canon in D Major”in Popular Culture•The ”Canon in D Major” is in itself, ”popular” and used “as is” in various films and commercials. •The 28 variations on the original 8 notes builds in complexity, creating a natural growing tension in the perceived “musical drama” unfolding – hence its use as a wedding march, and as a way for creating heightened emotions throughout a scene.◦Pantene – Commercial 1◦Pantene – Commercial 2◦GE Lightbulbs ◦Coca Cola 1◦Coca Cola Fifa2006◦Father of the Bride (start 1:10) – Notice “Leitmotif” of Wedding March/Wagner – double meaning!◦Ordinary People
Important: Applies ONLYto INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC!!!! PROGRAM MUSIC – a term coined in the “romantic era”◦Music that has a descriptive title and gives an Insight into the composer’s intentionsOpposite of Program Music is ABSOLUTE MUSIC-Music that has a generic title and/or is not written with any particular non-musical descriptive intent. Example: “Sonata No. 1 in A Major”38PROGRAM vs. ABSOLUTE MUSIC
GENRE: The Concerto – Some features:Concerto is a genre featuring a small group (or individual) vs. a Large group (the full orchestra) Results:•Natural competition of forces: •Piano vs. Forte•Soloist vs. large group - timbral difference39
40Types of Baroque Era concertos:1) Concerto grosso (small solo group with/”vs.” orchestra)2) Solo concerto (solo instrument with/”vs.” orchestra)Example: “The Four Seasons” by Antonio Vivaldi
Concerto terms1) “Concertino” – The small group of soloist(s) in a concerto grosso2) “Ripieno” – the full orchestra – not the soloist(s)• “Ritornello” form -Alternation between Ripieno and Concertino groups-Often the FIRST MOVEMENT of Baroque Concertos41
The Concerto – Some features:1) Fixed number of movements (Baroque through romantic eras):3 contrasting movements (Fast, Slow, Fast – typical plan) *Note: Modern concertos can have varying number of movements – 1 or 2, for example42
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