Threat is an awareness that our self is no longer

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Threat is an awareness that our self is no longer whole orcongruent.Defensivenessin order to prevent this inconsistency between ourorganismic experience and our perceived self we react in a defensivemannerDefensiveness is the protection of the self-concept against anxietyand threat by denial or distortion of experiences inconsistent withit.The two chief defenses are distortion and denial.Distortion - we misinterpret an experience in order to fitinto some aspect of our self-concept.Denial - we refuse to perceive an experience in awareness,or at least we keep some aspect of it from reachingsymbolization.Most people engage in defensive behavior, but sometimes defensesfail and behavior becomes disorganized or psychotic.Congruenceexists when a person's organismic experiences are matched by anawareness of them and by an ability and willingness to openly express thesefeelings.To be congruent means to be real or genuine, to be whole or integrated, tobe what one truly is.Factor AnalysisFactor Analysisa type of statistical procedure that is conducted to identify clusters or groups ofrelated items (called factors) on a test.Individual differences
People differ in their traits, as measured by personality testsAdjustmentMaladjustment can be described in terms of combinations of traits,which can be measured reliably with testsCognitionMental abilities can be measured objectivelySociety/cultureGroup level (national and cultural) differences exist and can bemeasured. Factor structures of tests are generally universal, crossculturallyBiologyVarious traits are thought to have a biological etiologyDevelopmentAdult personality is assumed to be stableRotation methods simplify factors and make results more reliable and easier tointerpret.Rotation methods in which correlations between the factors are allowedare oblique.Rotations where factors are not correlated are orthogonal.OrthogonalAims to get factors that are independent of one another, factors thatcorrelate with one another cannot be accepted as factorsFactors are kept uncorrelatedOblique rotationDoesn't require factors to be completely independent - factors may becorrelated, as long as the variables within a factor correlate more with oneanother than they do with other factorsLikely to gain more factors than orthogonal rotation: e.g. cattell usedoblique rotation and ended up with 16 personality factors and Eysenckused orthogonal rotation and ended up with 3Advantages:Because factors are freed from the (arbitrary) constraint ofbeing uncorrelated, these rotations can give more preciserepresentations of clusters of interrelated variables.Each factor can be located exactly through the centre.

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