Results: estimated amount of glass on the ground is a function of the intensity of the verb use to ask the question (smashed VS contacted)Misinformation effect: hypothesis that misleading post-event information can become integrated with the original memory of the event. Midterm 2 PSYC 213
Memory quirks : False MemoriesWhen we experience an event and later receive misleading information about it, we may not recognize that the source of that information is something other than the event itself.Source monitoring framework: theory that some errors of memory are caused by mistaken identification of the memory’s source.Deese-Roediger-McDermott effectStudy a list of associated words that has a strong associate/prototype but that prototype is not present on the studied list.E.g. Nap – Bed - RestAt test : Free recall or recognition test with words from the list and the associated prototype.E.g. Nap – Bed – Rest - SleepMidterm 2 PSYC 213
People will mistakenly remember the non-studied prototype = False memoryMidterm 2 PSYC 213
Types of False MemoriesThe misattribution effectA failure in source monitoring. Retrieving information that is assigned to a wrong source.The misinformation effectThe effect of leading questions on false memory formation (E.g. asking if carssmashed into each other or hit each other).Implanted memoriesAsked people to recall childhood experiences recounted by their parents over three experimental sessions, but a false memory was added to the list of experiences by the experimenter.20% of people had a false memory of this event by the end of the experiment.Midterm 2 PSYC 213
Tip of the fingerThe TOT phenomenon can occur in sign language.Deaf signers asked to name famous faces or countries (proper names)The signers reported knowing the name but not remembering the full sign.The signers could remember some components of the sign (e.g., shape of the hands, but not how to orient them).*Very similar to spoken language TOT.Cognitive Aging : Domain-general theoriesOlder adults… have deficits in general cognitive processing – executive functionsare slower at processing informationare unable to inhibit irrelevant informationE.g., trouble focusing on one picture and ignore all other pictures on a wall.Midterm 2 PSYC 213
Cognitive Aging : Associative deficit hypothesisDefinition: older adults have problems forming and remembering the associations or links between items more than they have problems remembering items.E.g. Older adults can remember aface, but may not be able toremember where they met thatperson (associate face to place).Experiment : Face-Name associationsOlder adults were able to do good onrecognition task, but did worse thanyoung-divided attention group inassociations. Midterm 2 PSYC 213
Cognitive Aging : Impairments of specific types Episodic memoryis by far the most affected by cognitive aging.