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21.Which statements regarding the term myelodysplasiaare true? (Select all that apply.)
a.Myelodysplasia is used to define a defect in the formation of the spinal cord.b.It can be used to refer to brain anomalies involving missing brain tissue.c.Myelodysplasia correctly includes encephaloceles.d.It is used to describe a herniation of brain and meninges through a defect in the skull.e.Myelodysplasia can be used to refer to a form of spina bifida.ANS:A, EAlthough myelodysplasia is defined as a defect in the formation of the spinal cord, the term is also used to refer to anomalies of both the vertebral column and the spinal cord. Birth defects in which the vertebrae fail to close are known as spina bifida (split spine). Anencephalyis an anomaly in which the soft, bony component of the skull and much of the brain are missing. Encephalocele refers to a herniation or protrusion of various amounts of brain and meninges through a defect in the skull, resulting in a saclike structure.PTS:1REF:Page 663MATCHINGMatch the tumor name with its site of development.______ A. Medulloblastoma______ B. Ependymoma______ C. Cerebellar astrocytoma______ D. Craniopharyngioma______ E. Neuroblastoma22.Originates in the neural crest that normally forms the sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla.23.Develops in the fourth ventricle.24.Develops in the vermis of the cerebellum and may extend to the fourth ventricle.25.Originates from the pituitary or hypothalamus.26.Causes unilateral symptoms such as nystagmus.22.ANS:EPTS:1REF:Page 684MSC:A neuroblastoma is an embryonal aggressive tumor that originates in the neural crest cells that normally give rise to the sympathetic nervous system (sympathetic ganglia and the adrenal medulla).23.ANS:BPTS:1REF:Page 683MSC:The ependymoma develops in the fourth ventricle and arises from the ependymal cells that line the ventricular system.24.ANS:APTS:1REF:Page 683MSC:A medulloblastoma is an embryonal tumor and the most common childhood malignant tumor. Itoccurs as an invasive tumor that develops in the vermis of the cerebellum and may extend into the fourth ventricle.25.ANS:DPTS:1REF:Page 683MSC:The area of the sella turcica, the structure containing the pituitary gland, is the site of several childhood brain tumors, including craniopharyngioma (the most common). These tumors may origi-nate from the pituitary gland or the hypothalamus.26.ANS:CPTS:1REF:Page 683MSC:Cerebellar astrocytomas are located on the surface of the right or left cerebellar hemisphere andcause unilateral symptoms (occurring on the same side of the tumor), such as head tilt, limb ataxia, andnystagmus when the eyes are turned toward the tumor.