Microbiologists use the Gram stain to aid in the identification of bacteria

Microbiologists use the gram stain to aid in the

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21) Microbiologists use the Gram stain to aid in the identification of bacteria. What is the major difference between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria? A) presence or absence of peptidoglycan in the cell wall B) presence or absence of outer plasma membrane C) structure of the lipids in the plasma membrane D) tolerance to anaerobic environments 22) What major event occurred 65.5 MYA?
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LS1 Winter11 Name & ID _____ KEY ______________________ 6 of 9 23) Why are seedless vascular plants considered paraphyletic rather than monophyletic? A) The group includes their common ancestor but also the seeded descendants of that same ancestor. B) All of the groups contained within the seedless vascular plants do not have the same ancestor. C) They share a more recent common ancestor with seeded plants than they do with the non-vascular plants. D) Some of the groups within the seedless vascular plants are more closely related to each other than to other groups. 24) Conifers and pines both have needlelike leaves. Why might their leaves be of this type? 25) Which one of the following is not a good strategy for increasing the surface area of an object relative to the volume? A) decrease size B) make flatter C) become more spherical D) increase the amount of branching E) increase the amount of folding
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LS1 Winter11 Name & ID _____ KEY ______________________ 7 of 9 Short Answer. 1. As one traces the evolutionary history of angiosperms back through to the ancestor of the eukaryotes, the evolution of at least five mutualistic interactions have led to the ecology and physiology of the angiosperms we observe today. a. (20 pts) Briefly identify five, and only five, mutualistic interactions found in modern plants and the benefit the plant receives. (Hint: the first dates back to the first eukaryotes) 5 of the following, 4 pts each (2 pts for the interaction, 2 pts for the benefit) Mitochondria -ː perform oxidative respiration to provide energy Chloroplast -ː perform photosynthesis to provide energy and large organic molecules Mycorrhizae -ː provide plant with nutrients, increase SA/V (NOT just SA) Seed dispersal by animals -ː plants have seeds dispersed (can also mention fertilizer effect of feces, seeds put in more suitable habitat) Pollination by animals -ː Animals transport pollen to female reproductive parts of plant. Nitrogen fixing bacteria -ː fix nitrogen from atmosphere into compounds that the plant can use Half credit given for production of oxygen by plants and its use in oxidative respiration by eukaryotes, if it was described correctly. Note that this is not a specific mutualism.
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