- Wartime CCP base: Yan’an, Shanxi a. Party membership swelled from 40,000 in 1937 to 80,000 in 1940 b. Second United Front broke down in 1941, GMD economic blockade; guerilla warfare c. Gained control of villages; moderate reform; Mao worked out his political ideas
The Civil War 1947-49 - U.S. dropping of atomic bombs; Japan surrendered on Aug. 15 1945 - Americans and Russians both intervened. - CCP forces defeated Chiang’s better-equipped army; better at building civilian support - GMD defeated by early 1949 and fled to Taiwan How the war with Japan afected the outcome - War weakened the GMD state but allowed the CCP to rebuild and widen control - Rural poverty caused by wartime destruction; social laboratory for CCP reform - Widespread collaboration in coastal cities; corruption and hyperinflation; heavy GMD repression. 11/09/2018 The Communist Revolution
- End of the old marriage law, began the “free marriage” - “study the Soviet Union’s advanced economy to build up our nation”1953 Building a new China - How to create a strong centralized state? - How to rebuild the economy? - How to prevent counter-revolution? Mao Zedong Thought - Impact of Marxism-Leninist ideas: a. To build a society free of class exploitation under capitalism. b. To promote worldwide revolution against imperialism. - Mao’s response based on Chinese conditions a. Chinese industrial working class (proletariat) and capitalist class (bourgeoisie) were small and weak; failure of urban strategy. b. Semi-colonial, semi-feudal; weak central state c. Role of peasant masses; a departure from Marxism-Leninism d. Peasant as a revolutionary force but also require leadership. e. Idealist: no need to wait for material conditions to build socialism (in contrast to Marxism). f. Voluntarist: role of human consciousness and will in radical change. g. Calls for break from China’s traditions; liberation of women. “A People’s democratic dictatorship” - “The People” entitled to democracy (freedom of speech, assembly, association): a. Peasants b. Urban Petty Bourgeoisie (intellectuals)
c. National Bourgeoisie (small factory and shop owners) d. workers - Those subject to dictatorship: a. “Running dogs” of imperialism b. Landlords c. GMD supporters The Party State - Party, government, and army (PLA) a. Party: oversaw ideology and coordination between the government and the army 1. Central committee and politburo b. Government: 24 ministries 1. State council: Zhou Enlai c. Army: controlled by the Party Military Afairs Commission - New order a. In the cities: left some 2 million GMD officials in place. b. Took over the banks and controlled hyperinflation c. Led campaigns to “clean up” the cities. d. A network of street committees e. Work units ( 单位 ) ： place of work, school, or residence. f. Three-Anti, Five-Anti campaign against capitalists and “counterrevolutionaries” - In the countryside: land reform to dismantle “feudal system of production”; “land to the tiller” - To increase agriculture productivity and support urban industrialization - Class labels: landlord, rich peasant, middle peasant, poor peasant, hired labor.
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