An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is an information processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information. The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system.Gateway Question 2.3: Can the nervous system grow and heal itself?Learning Objective PGAT_COON_2016_2.3.1 – Explain why the brain’s circuitry is not static by discussing the process of neuroplasticity, including Hebb’s rule and the effects of cognitive behavior therapy and self-directed neuroplasticity. Neuroplasticity: The brain's ability to reorganize itself by forming new neural connections throughout life. Neuroplasticity allows the neurons (nerve cells) in the brain to compensate for injury and disease and to adjust their activities in response tonew situations or to changes in their environment.
(Add 1,000 or more words beyond question word count of 1,468)Learning Objective PGAT_COON_2016_2.3.2 – Explain the function of neurilemma in the regeneration of neurons within the peripheral nervous system (PNS); identify the various techniques scientists are now using to repair damaged neurons within the spinal cord; and describe how the discovery of neurogenesis in adult brains is leading to new treatments and therapies. Neurolemma (also known as neurilemma or sheath of Schwann (Schwann's Sheath))is the outermost nucleated cytoplasmic layer of Schwann cells (also called neurolemmocytes) that surrounds the axon of the neuron. ... Neurolemma serves a protective function for peripheral nerve fibers.Gateway Question 2.4: How are different parts of the brain identified and what do they do?Learning Objective PGAT_COON_2016_2.4.1 – Describe how the techniques of dissection and the less intrusive CT scans and MRI scans have been used to investigate brain structure. A computerized tomography (CT) scan combines a series of X-ray images taken from different angles and uses computer processing to create cross-sectional images,or slices, of the bones, blood vessels and soft tissues inside your body. CT scan images provide more detailed information than plain X-rays do.Magnetic resonance imaging, NMR, Nuclear magnetic resonance. ... Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditionsLearning Objective PGAT_COON_2016_2.4.2 – Define biopsychology; and describe the topics studied by biopsychologists, including the brain research strategy referred to as localization of function. the branch of psychology concerned with its biological and physiological aspects.Learning Objective PGAT_COON_2016_2.4.3 – Describe the techniques that are used to map brain functions, including clinical case studies and the observations of neurological soft signs, electrical stimulation, ablation, deep lesioning, electrical recording, and microelectrode recording, and the lessintrusive EEG recording, PET scans, and fMRI scans; and discuss how these techniques have been used to detect and understand brain disorders and even behaviors, such as lying.