Outline and Lecture Notes of Chapter 2.doc

Egypt using left hand alone to exchange an item with

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Egypt: Using left hand alone to exchange an item with an Egyptian is considered rude. Israel: When Israelis invite someone to their home, it is an important gesture. It is appropriate to bring a book as a gift. Spain: After a meal, you must place your utensils together on the plate. Otherwise, your Spanish host would think you were not satisfied. 5. Culture involves large groups of people. B. Culture and related terms 1. Nation a. Nation definition b. C ulture and nation are not equivalent terms. A number of unique cultures can exist within the political boundaries of one nation. 2. Race a. Race definition b. Race is predominantly a political, legal, and social distinction. c. Race is a more encompassing term than either culture or nation. d. Racial distinctions often form the basis for prejudicial communication that can be a major obstacle to intercultural communication. 3. Ethnicity a. Ethnicity definition 3
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b. People may share ethnic beliefs but may be members of different cultures. 4. Subculture and coculture a. Subculture and Coculture p.21 c. Subculture and coculture are imprecise terms, and it is preferred to regard the cultural groups referenced by these terms as cultures in their own right. C. Why cultures differ 1. A culture creates a common frame of reference that provides a widely shared understanding the world, but members of a culture seldom notice the common frame of reference because it exerts a steady and continuous effect on everyone. 2. There are six forces that help generate cultural differences. a. History 1. History forms the shared knowledge that guides a culture’s collective action. 2. Each history is unique to a particular culture and carries specific cultural message. You have to know what people have gone through to understand what they want and don’t want. Consider This: Consider This: It is important to understand different types of histories. Family histories occur at the same time as other histories but on a more personal level. National history, which we learn in school, gives us a shared notion of who we are and solidifies our sense of nationhood. Although we may not fit into the national narrative, we are expected to get familiar with our national history. You may be familiar with national history of U.S. so you can understand the many references used in communication. It is one way of constructing cultural discourses. In addition to typically shared national history, each cultural group may have its own history. Visit the History Channel website What happened today in history? 4
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It is easy to assume that a culture was affected by a natural disaster or political event, but to identify specifically how the culture was changed is more challenging. One example in the U.S. was WWII and the influx of women into the job market. Because so many men were fighting overseas, women were hired to replace them in factories and offices. Since that time, the presence of women in the workplace has risen dramatically. The status and roles of women have changed, so that women in the U.S. can now
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