Chronic persist for a long period with less severe symptoms than acute

Chronic persist for a long period with less severe

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Chronic: persist for a long period with less severe symptoms than acute Secondary : follows a primary, but is caused by a different microbe, opportunistic pathogens Subclinical: does not cause an apparent signs or symptoms, but may persist over long periods of time
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Signs and Symptoms of Infection Local Pain, tenderness, swelling, redness, and warmth Bacteria: purulent exudate, or pus Viral: serous, clear exudates Lymphadenopathy manifested by swollen and tender lymph nodes Systemic Fever Fatigue Weakness Headache Nausea
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Classification of Anti- Infectives Anti-infective: Any drug that is effective against pathogens Grouped by chemical classes and pharmacologic classes
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Classification of Anti- Infectives Chemical Class Aminoglycoside Fluoroquinolone Sulfonamides Penicillins Pharmacologic class Cell wall inhibitor Protein synthesis inhibitor Folic acid inhibitor Reverse transcriptase inhibitors
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Figure 34.1 Mechanisms of Action antimicrobial drugs
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Definitions r/t Anti-Infective Drugs Bacteriocidal Bacteriostatic Acquired resistance Culture & Sensitivity testing Broad-Spectrum Narrow-Spectrum Superinfection Host flora
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A broad-spectrum bactericidal agent would be expected to? A. Destroy many gram- positive and gram- negative bacteria B. Prevent the growth of pathogenic microbes in contact with the agent C. Reduce replication of many bacteria D. Inhibit the growth of most spores and acid- fast bacteria
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Acquired Resistance Microorganisms have the ability to replicate extremely rapidly: e. coli can produce a million cells every 20 minutes Exponential cell divisions cause frequent errors while duplicating their genetic code; mutations, occur randomly Antibiotics kill the bacteria leaving behind the microbes that possess mutations making them insensitive to antibiotics The bacteria becomes resistant not the patient An individual with a resistant infection can transmit the resistant bacteria to others The longer an antibiotic is used in the population and the more often it is prescribed the larger the percentage of resistant strains
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Figure 34.2 Acquired Resistance
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Selection of an Effective Antibiotic Selecting an incorrect drug will delay proper treatment, giving microorganism more time to invade Prescribing ineffective antibiotics also promotes the development of resistance may cause unnecessary adverse effects in the patient Laboratory tests should be conducted to identify the specific pathogen prior to beginning anti-infective therapy
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Lab Tests Urine Stool Spinal fluid Sputum Blood Purulent drainage Culture and sensitivity: organisms are grown and tested with different antibiotics to determine which is most effective against the infecting microorganism,
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Effective Antibiotics Broad-spectrum antibiotic: effective against a wide variety of different microbial species Narrow-spectrum antibiotic: effective against a smaller group of microbes or only the isolated species, fewer side effects
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