Electrical gradient the difference in charges between

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46. Electrical gradient – the difference in charges between 2 sides of a membrane a. Eg: ICF is more negative than ECF, causing positive ions to be more likely to diffuse into a cell (like Sodium) 47. Chemical gradient – the difference in chemical concentration between 2 sides of a membrane a. Eg: Potassium tends to flow out of the cell, which goes with its chemical gradient but against an electrical gradient, because both potassium and the ECF are positively charged 48. Electrochemical gradient – the difference in charge and concentration of chemicals between 2 sides of a membrane a. Eg: Sodium tends to diffuse into cells because it flows to an area of lower concentration (chemical) as well as an oppositely charged area (electrical) 49. Tonocity – based off of concentration of solute particles a. Used in terms of comparison between 2+ sides of a membrane 50. ICF is Isotonic to ECF – concentration of solute in ICF and ECF are equal, meaning that the cell will neither shrink nor expand
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7 51. ECF is Hypertonic to ICF – concentration of solute in ECF is higher than in the ICF, meaning that the cell will shrink as water rushes out of the cell to the area of higher solute concentration (ECF) 52. ECF is Hypotonic to ICF – concentration of solute in the ECF is lower than in the ICF, meaning that the cell will expand and burst as water rushes into the cell to the area of higher solute concentration (ICF) 53. ATP – the universal energy carrier, adenosine triphosphate, whose high energy bonds are broken to release energy necessary to carry out bodily function a. ATP consists of a nitrogenous base (adenine), bonded to a sugar (ribose), which is bonded to 3 phosphate groups 54. Phosphorylation – the addition of a phosphate group to a molecule a. Eg: ADP is phosphorylated with Pi to form ATP
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  • Spring '08
  • Vansciver
  • Physiology, Atom, fatty acid tails, hydrophobic fatty acid, Mitochondrial matrix, i. Location

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