48 2011 Shirley J Wright PhD PRE LAB EXERCISE 41 Overview of the Back Region

48 2011 shirley j wright phd pre lab exercise 41

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48 © 2011 Shirley J. Wright, Ph.D.
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PRE-LAB EXERCISE 4.1: Overview of the Back Region From superficial to deep, the layers and major components of the back region are: Skin: external surface composed of epidermis, dermis and associated structures. Subcutaneous tissue: loose connective tissue with adipose tissue (fat), superficial fascia and vessels that lie just under the skin and usually adhere to it during dissection. Deep fascia: dense connective tissue devoid of fat and wraps deep structures Muscles: extrinsic and intrinsic muscles in superficial and deeper layers. Blood vessels: arteries and veins that supply bone, muscles and nerves. Nervous system components: spinal cord, its meninges and the spinal nerves. Bones: vertebral column, its ligaments and posterior part of ribs. Although this is the general order in which structures are found in the back, conceptually it is easier to first focus on the bones , then the muscles followed by the nerves and lastly the blood vessels of the back region. In the figure below, label the vertebral column, ribs and spinal cord. Indicate the general position of muscles, nerves and blood vessels (veins are blue in figure) without using specific names of individual muscles, nerves or vessels. 49 © 2011 Shirley J. Wright, Ph.D. © P
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PRE-LAB EXERCISE 4.2: Vertebral Column The major core and structural supporting component of the back is the vertebral column (spine) which is part of the axial skeleton. The vertebral column transmits the weight of the head, neck, trunk and upper limbs to the lower limbs. It also functions to surround and protect the spinal cord and proximal parts of the spinal nerves and associated structures. Muscles of the back attach to the vertebral column and its ligaments. The vertebral column is composed of individual vertebrae and intervertebral discs (cushions between the vertebrae). Vertebrae are named for the region in which they are located. Color each vertebra type a different color: cervical, coccyx, lumbar, thoracic, sacrum. Hint: To locate the body regions, review your answers for Pre-Lab Exercise 1.4, or check in Primal Pictures (see Pre-Lab Exercises 4.3 and 4.4). PRE-LAB EXERCISE 4.3: Curvatures 50 © 2011 Shirley J. Wright, Ph.D. Number of Vertebrae: Cervical: Thoracic: Lumbar: Sacrum: Coccyx:
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When viewed laterally, the adult vertebral column has four curvatures each named after the region in which they are located: cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral curvature . These curvatures help balance and distribute the body’s weight and act as shock absorbers. The thoracic and sacral curvatures are primary curvatures because they develop during the early fetal period and are present at birth. They are concave anteriorly. The cervical and lumbar curvatures are secondary curvatures because they develop after birth and are associated with lifting the head and sitting. They are convex anteriorly.
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  • Spring '11
  • Masthay
  • Vertebra, Bones of the torso

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