a. Positive – add a desirable stimulant (ex. Getting hug or paycheck) b. Negative – remove an aversive stimulus (fastening seatbelt to turn off beeping) iii. Reward Schedules 1. Receive reinforcement for a behavior iv. Schedules 1. Continuous Reinforcement – given with each desired response
2. Partial Reinforcement – given with only some of the desired responses v. Reinforcement Schedules 1. Interval = time 2. Ratio = number responses a. Ratio gives steeper curve due to need to respond as quickly as possible b. LOOK AT BOOK PIC 3. Variable ratio – VR a. Slot machine 4. Fixed Ratio – FR a. $20 for making 5 products 5. Variable Interval – VI a. Catching fish 6. Fixed Interval – FI a. Monthly paycheck 7. Key Point: Intermittent (partial) reinforcement higher responding and more resistant to extinction II. Connect the Content All reinforces (CH5) increase dopamine (CH2) in our brain. Really reinforcing things make a lot of dopamine, sometimes causing addiction (CH4). i. Rats find meth more reinforcing that food because it causes greater effect of dopamine (increases release and blocks reuptake). When operationally conditioned to press a lever to receive meth, they continue to do so until they die. Slightly Complex Parts i. There are positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement 1. + = Giving something good 2. - = Removing something bad 3. Both increase the likelihood that a behavior will occur in the future ii. Punishment 1. Different from reinforcement 2. DECREASES the probability of a response over time III. Types of Learning Do you know the differences between classical and operant conditioning? Classical conditioning- the office – Dwight takes candy every time he hears a ding Operant conditioning – organisms learn the association between two stimuli Classical Conditioning – organisms learn the associations between a behavior and a consequence
IV. Reinforcement – Operant Conditioning Food is often both a positive and a negative reinforce i. Removes hunger ii. Provides pleasant taste and texture sensations V. Punishment Limitations of Punishment i. Demonstrates what behavior is wrong, but doesn’t help organism to determine what to do instead Alternative to Punishment i. Removing the reward for undesirable behaviors and rewarding desired ones may be more effective ii. Behavior Modifications: 1. Using a combination of learning techniques to alter behavior 2. Includes toke economics & time-outs 3. Token Economies: a. Involve giving tokens that are redeemable for desired privileges or objects as rewards b. Effective as long as the rewards continue 4. Shaping a. Rewarding successively closer approximations of a desired behavior b. Useful for teaching new behaviors VI. Observational Learning A third type of learning People tend to imitate: i. People they see as more like them ii. People who are rewarded iii. Prestigious people Bandura’s Study with Bobo doll i. Children watched films of adults kicking, punching, and hammering on a big rubber doll ii. Later the children imitated the adult’s behavior – some of them almost exactly VII. Distinguishing Learning Classical conditioning usually involves involuntary reflexes
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