oAmygdala plays an important role in emotionsAmygdala is a cluster of nuclei under cerebral cortex in the temporal lobe – part of the limbic systemKluver and Bucy demonstated the amygdala’s role in emotionRemoved amygdala and portion of temporal lobe of rhesus monkeyThis interfered with the monkey’s ability to process the psychological significance of stimuli (ex. failed to show fear when presented objects that previously frightened them)People with amygdala damage do not demonstrate emotional response to stimuli that would normally evoke emotionsoPrefrontal cortex plays a role in our conscious experience of emotion and thoughtful deliberative responses to emotionsEx. people who underwent prefrontal lobotomies no longer experienced strong emotion and lacked the ability to plan and implement actions effectively-Culture and EmotionsoOnly a few different emotions but different cultures have a wide variety of secondary emotions and emotional signalsoEx. Thai people have varying types of smiles among which they can differentiateoEmotions, being an adaptation, can be obligate (universal) such as the basic emotions or facultative(differing as a function of one’s environment) such as the Thai smilesClinical Psychology I – Mental DisordersCharacteristics of Mental Disorders-Clinical SignificanceoWhen we gather information to make a diagnosis, we need to look at how it relates to symptomsoSymptoms must cause distress or impair ability to function in daily lifeClinically significant – the distress/impairment is clinically significantif it is sufficiently significant, marked, or substantial in intensity that the patient would benefit from professional treatmentSomeone who fails a test and mopes for a day is not significantly distressed but if they mope for weeks, lose their appetite can’t sleep etc. they may be significantly distressedoInternal and External FactorsInternal factors – factors that are driven from withinA sense of pride, satisfaction in a job well done or the need to overcome a challengeCompulsions to do something, feeling hopelessExternal factors99
Factors that are more tangible and come from someone other than the individualMaternal reward, good grades, praiseMight be orders given by a boss or the rules of a competitionYou can’t diagnose an individual if the sole cause of his distress/impairment is external to himoEx. someone does not have a mental disorder if they are upset due to the loss of a loved oneoVoluntary or InvoluntaryIndividuals cannot be diagnosed with a metal disorder if their behaviour is voluntaryPeople with a mental disorder do not choose to behave the way they dooDefining NormalNormal is based on perception and knowledge so we need to understand the context in which an individual grew up and now lives to appreciate whether his/her behaviour is normal or not Ex. “normal” behavior is different in New York City and NigeriaoA syndrome is a mental disorder when:IMPAIRMENT IS CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT, BEHAVIOUR IS INTERNAL AND BEHAVIOUR IS INVOLUNTARY oQuestions to ask when assessing mental disorders:1.Look for genetic predispositionDo any of your relatives have mental health problems?
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