Feeling of familiarity or knowing Autonoetic consciousness Episodic memory : you have an awareness and personal engagement in a remember episode. Mental time-travel Midterm 2 PSYC 213
Spreading Activation Definition : idea that activation of the paths that make up a semantic network spreads rom the node a which the search begin. Priming Experiment : Lexical Decision Task When two words are semantically related to each other, the time it takes to recognize the second word was smaller than if the two word were not related. Involuntary semantic memory (mind popping) Definition : a semantic memory that pops into your mind without episodic context. HOWEVER Kvavilashvili’s research found that often episodic context facilitated the involuntary semantic memory by without awareness of it. One person thought about Scratchy (character from The Simpsons) most likely because he was scratching his arm, yet he couldn’t make the association. Midterm 2 PSYC 213
Connectionist Models of Memory Observe that items are not stored in memory, but rather that memories consist of certain patterns of activity. a) Excitatory connections : connections that enhance the association between units in a neural network. b) Inhibitory connections : connections that dimnish the association between units in a neural network. Quillian’s model of semantic memory Searching through a network takes time (mental chronometry). Therefore, the length of the path in the network will determine this time. relationships farther apart in the network takes longer than relationships closer together Midterm 2 PSYC 213
Midterm 2 PSYC 213
Storing of memories : Memory traces Modern view of memory traces is more like a video recording that is preserved indefinitely and be replayed over and over. - Physical representation in the brain - The substrate of memory - Traces are not static The reappearance hypothesis : the same memory can disappear and reappear, unchanged, again and again (memory trace is just reactivated with no interpretation). Evidence against this idea 1. Autobiographical memories of the same event vary considerably over time and retrievals. 2. Memories are reconstructed when we remember them. Midterm 2 PSYC 213
Flashbulb memories Definition : Vivid, detailed memories of significant events, typically public events and typically emotionally arousing. Now Print! Theory : significant experiences are immediately « photocopied » and preserved in long-term memory (lends to the reappearance hypothesis)… Two criteria to create Flashbulb memory : 1) SURPRISE 2) CONSEQUENTIALITY Experiment : recollection of flashbulb memories Asked about the 9/11 (flashbulb event) and other autobiographical events at three different time periods. Results : Details = no difference between flashbulb and everyday memories Ratings = flashbulb memories has greater ratings of belief and recollection (vividness) over time * Memories for emotional responses are less consistent across time than objective memory, but only for flashbulb memories * Distance the World Trade Center predicted flashbulb effect (farther = less traces) Midterm 2 PSYC 213
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- Winter '08
- Memory processes, memory disorder, Semantic Dementia, The Unconscious