Sender et al 2016 PLoS Biology how are different cells made different genetic

Sender et al 2016 plos biology how are different

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Sender et al, 2016, PLoS Biology
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how are different cells made different? genetic programs …. start as fertilized egg, divide and “differentiate” – become particular cell types that express different genes (and thereby different macromolecules) at different times Central Dogma: DNA RNA Protein (other important molecules are imported or built by proteins (enzymes))
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- molecules make up cells - name the 4 classes of biological molecules 1 2 3 4
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membranes What are the jobs of membranes? separates incompatible reactions, facilitates others Selectively allows molecules in/out of cells and organelles by diffusion or channels Phospholipid bilayer, associated proteins, cholesterol Hold things together, and keep them apart!
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eukaryotic cells are organized by (membrane-bound) organelles, which have different essential functions chemistrypictures.org fun,interactive tutorial: differences in organelle composition reflect specialized functions of the cell
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nucleus – the cell’s HQ 1. Chromatin : Genetic material plus associated proteins 2. Nucleolus : site of ribosomal RNA synthesis and subunit assembly 3. Nucleoplasm : non-nucleolar regions of nucleus 4. Nuclear matrix : Supportive structure
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endomembrane system Series of interconnected, closed, membrane-bound vesicles that traffic cellular contents Nuclear Envelope (2 layer) Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) smooth ER (SER) – makes phospholipids, fatty acids
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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) – protein manufacturing (ribosomes) smooth ER (SER) – makes phospholipids, fatty acids
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Golgi apparatus - protein processor, sorter 1. Vesicles from rER travel to and fuse with cis Golgi 2. Proteins traffic through; modified 3. At trans end, vesicle buds off
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mitochondrion – the power house Site of intracellular energy generation via ATP production during aerobic respiration Has its own genome Enzymes in matrix and on cristae convert glucose to CO 2 + H 2 O releasing ATP (energy)
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chloroplasts convert light to usable energy
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cytosol – not just a swimming pool 20-30% of cellular proteins are in cytosol – plus fat, carbohydrates -much interaction! Site of much cellular metabolism, ribosomes the Cytoskeleton is made up of proteins that give cells structure and provide highways to move molecules © David S. Goodsell 1999. © David S. Goodsell 1999.
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what we know about cells depends on how we study them microscopy and its many variants biochemistry genetics cell culture “model” organisms scanning electron micrograph of human cells t r a n s m is si o n Mycoplasma mycoides JCVI-syn1.0. Compound microscopy (left) and scanning electron microscopy (top) Credit: J. Craig Venter Institute.
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in our next, exciting episode of cell biology… more about molecular biology of the cell, and the magic of chemistry from Chapter TWO (read the book!) please register your clicker and bring it to class! attend discussion section starting Tuesday 9/6…
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  • Spring '14
  • David S. Goodsell, American Society for Cell Biology

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