For example considering the effect of alcohol only on

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For example considering the effect of alcohol only on those who indulge in it to excess, one may  conclude that all liquor is harmful and urge that its sale and use should be forbidden by law, or that  the eating of too much red meat is detrimental to one’s health, and one concludes that the sale and  eating of red meat should be banned. Such reasoning is erroneous.   12. Fallacy of False Cause  This fallacy is committed in instances where one mistakes what is not the cause of a given effect for  its real cause. The mere fact of coincidence or temporal succession does not establish any causal  connection. Certainly we reject the claim that beating the drums is the cause of the sun’s  reappearance after an eclipse, even though one can offer as the evidence of the fact that every time  drums have been beaten during an eclipse, the sun has reappeared. 13. Fallacy of Accident
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The fallacy of accident consists in applying a general rule to a particular case whose “accidental”  circumstances render the rule inapplicable. In Plato’s  Republic , for example, an exception is found to the general rule that one should pay one’s debt: Example:   “suppose that a friend when in his right mind has deposited weapons with me and he ask for them when he is not in his right mind, ought I to give them back to him? No one would say that I  ought or that I should be right in doing so…”what is true, “in general” may not be true universally and without qualification, because circumstances alter cases. Many generalisations known or suspected to have exceptions are stated without qualification, either  because the exact conditions restricting their applicability are not known or because the accidental  circumstances that render them inapplicable occur so seldom as to be practically negligible. When  such a generalization is appealed to in arguing about a particular case whose accidental  circumstances prevent the general proposition from applying, the argument is said to commit  the  fallacy of accident. A practical example of this fallacy is;               Premise 1 : “what you bought yesterday you eat today;           Premise 2:   you bought raw meat yesterday;           Therefore you eat raw meat today.” ( Conclusion)   In this argument, the premise  “what you bought yesterday, you eat today”  applies generally only to  the substance of what is bought, rather than to its condition. It is not intended to cover every  accidental circumstance, such as the raw condition of the meat.
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