Canals artificial rivers Allow access between cities Erie canal Between albany

Canals artificial rivers allow access between cities

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Canals (artificial rivers) Allow access between cities Erie canal Between albany and buffalo In most cities, mountains are too high for canals to be effective, elevation too high Chesapeake and ohio canal 74 locks needed to climb 600 feet The railroad The great breakthrough, more than canals Invented in england First in baltimore and ohio B&O railroad chartered in 1830 Some anti-railroad campaigns (cuz they dangerous if boiler blew up) Railroads and national economy Grew alot from 1840 to 1860 Created a national economy Tied northeast and northwest (midwest) into a single north Transportation Revolution Erie canal gave new york great advantage Railroads can go uphill, can take crops with it, allow baltimore to reach ohio, tap into ohio market, not be left behind by new york Railroads connected the north Communication revolution Telegraph Patented in 1844 Came in hand w/ railroad Copper wire can carry electrical current Used for trade/news, economic stuff, prices and demands can be known, ppl manipulate economic behavior based on info they get Morse code Transmit electrical impulses by wire Transmit letters over wires 35 miles strung line between baltimore and washington By 1850, 20k miles of wire Trans-atlantic cable 1858 New york can talk to london Wire in ocean Accelerated market information Chicago Board of Trade, 1848 Future market
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Crude market of negotiation Like the card game pit Individuals in a restless age Geographic mobility Moving from place to place Into cities Into west New groups of ppl Like musical chairs, moving around of people Social mobility Climbing the ladder Can spend whole life in one town but move in a social aspect A world in motion Social profile: the frozen stream Top layer Ice: is the rich ppl, they’re frozen in place, why would they want to leave Bottom layer Mud: is the poor and enslaved Middle layer Flowing Water: is the restless majority, hoping to rise and freeze but afraid of sinking to the bottom and sticking in the mud American dream is to rise But social mobility in US is actually pretty low Alexis de Tocqueville’s doc “democracy in america” He was in america for 2 years, traveled around alot He wrote a book during this time, written for a french audience in french Favorite book for americans of a foreigner describing america He thinks democracy is the future, what america is, whole world will become America is the future 4 books in democracy in america 1. Description of america for french 2. feelings/what democracy has done to american personlity 3. Manners, how americans behave 4. Politicals Relationship between political freedom (democracy) and social and economic equality Equality of conditions Americans are much more interested in equality of conditions/things How does this drive americans?
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