Canals (artificial rivers) ■Allow access between cities ■Erie canal ●Between albany and buffalo ■In most cities, mountains are too high for canals to be effective, elevation too high ■Chesapeake and ohio canal ●74 locks needed to climb 600 feet ●The railroad ○The great breakthrough, more than canals ○Invented in england ○First in baltimore and ohio ■B&O railroad chartered in 1830 ○Some anti-railroad campaigns (cuz they dangerous if boiler blew up) ●Railroads and national economy ○Grew alot from 1840 to 1860 ○Created a national economy ○Tied northeast and northwest (midwest) into a single north ●Transportation Revolution ○Erie canal gave new york great advantage ○Railroads can go uphill, can take crops with it, allow baltimore to reach ohio, tap into ohio market, not be left behind by new york ●Railroads connected the north ●Communication revolution ○Telegraph ■Patented in 1844 ■Came in hand w/ railroad ■Copper wire can carry electrical current ■Used for trade/news, economic stuff, prices and demands can be known, ppl manipulate economic behavior based on info they get ○Morse code ■Transmit electrical impulses by wire ■Transmit letters over wires ○35 miles strung line between baltimore and washington ○By 1850, 20k miles of wire ■Trans-atlantic cable 1858 ●New york can talk to london ●Wire in ocean ○Accelerated market information ■Chicago Board of Trade, 1848 ●Future market
●Crude market of negotiation ●Like the card game pit ●Individuals in a restless age ○Geographic mobility ■Moving from place to place ■Into cities ■Into west ■New groups of ppl ■Like musical chairs, moving around of people ○Social mobility ■Climbing the ladder ■Can spend whole life in one town but move in a social aspect ○A world in motion ■Social profile: the frozen stream ●Top layer Ice: is the rich ppl, they’re frozen in place, why would they want to leave ●Bottom layer Mud: is the poor and enslaved ●Middle layer Flowing Water: is the restless majority, hoping to rise and freeze but afraid of sinking to the bottom and sticking in the mud ○American dream is to rise ■But social mobility in US is actually pretty low ●Alexis de Tocqueville’s doc “democracy in america” ○He was in america for 2 years, traveled around alot ○He wrote a book during this time, written for a french audience in french ○Favorite book for americans of a foreigner describing america ○He thinks democracy is the future, what america is, whole world will become ○America is the future ○4 books in democracy in america ■1. Description of america for french ■2. feelings/what democracy has done to american personlity ■3. Manners, how americans behave ■4. Politicals ○Relationship between political freedom (democracy) and social and economic equality ■Equality of conditions ■Americans are much more interested in equality of conditions/things ■How does this drive americans?