Typically no longer than a week use of pads tampons

This preview shows page 41 - 49 out of 70 pages.

typically no longer than a week use of pads, tampons; more recently menstrual cups (e.g., the Keeper) Female Anatomy and Physiology
42 Menstrual Cycle Proliferative Phase (Follicular Phase) approximately 10 days long in response to drop in estrogens, pituitary starts to secrete FSH – signals ripening of 10-20 ova within their follicles follicles begin production of estrogens → endometrium thickens progesterone remains low surge in GnRH 36 hours before ovulation, increased FSH stimulates final development of follicle and LH stimulates ovulation Female Anatomy and Physiology
43 Menstrual Cycle Ovulation estrogens peak, progesterone remains low surge in LH leads to release of a mature ovum from the ovaries into the fallopian tube(s) two mature ova fertilized → fraternal twins one fertilized ovum divides into two zygotes → identical twins Female Anatomy and Physiology
44 Menstrual Cycle Secretory (Luteal) Phase corpus luteum – ruptured follicle acts as an endocrine gland secreting lots of progesterone and some estrogens progesterone production by corpus luteum peaks high levels stimulate further thickening of endometrium and glands of endometrium to secrete nutrients for fertilized ovum implanted in uterus wall if no implantation, corpus luteum decomposes and P/E drop Female Anatomy and Physiology
45 Menstrual Problems Dysmenorrhea pain or discomfort (typically cramps) primary – no organic origin secondary – pain secondary to organic problems (e.g., endometriosis, pelvic inflammation disease, ovarian cysts, etc.) cramps (uterine contractions) from prostaglandins (act like hormone. Responsible for contractions during childbirth. Some people have higher levels, which causes more cramping. Ibuprofin helps greatly.) fluid retention; in breasts – mastalgia (tender breasts) orgasm can relieve menstrual discomfort, because it causes muscles to relax around vagina Female Anatomy and Physiology
46 Menstrual Problems Premenstrual Symptom (PMS) physiological/psychological symptoms present 4-6 days before period begins may persist into menstrual phase can be controlled somewhat by lifestyle (e.g., diet, exercise) DSM-5: Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder Female Anatomy and Physiology
47 Menstrual Problems Amenorrhea absence of menstruation; primary sign of infertility primary – in women who have not menstruated by age 16-17 secondary – in women who have previously had normal periods (can be caused by low body fat). This is another safety system for reproduction. Female Anatomy and Physiology
48 The Bum anus – opening two sphincters : external – voluntary control. You can relax that muscle internal – typically involuntary, although control can be learned rectum – outer-most passage. Holding tank. Empty unless you have to poo.

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture