When the selection ratio for one group is less than

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: when the selection ratio for one group is less than 80% of the selection ratio for another; ratio = #Hired ÷ #Applied o Ex. Males Hired = 20 hired /100 applicants = .20 Females Hired = 5 hired /50 applicants = .10 .10 ÷ .20 = .50 and .50 < .80, so there’s Adverse Impact o If Adverse Impact exists, use a different selection test or ensure that the test is validated (2) Training & Development Designed to give current employees any additional KSAs needed to perform their current jobs The goal here is to transfer what’s learned back to the job and enhance the value that employees can contribute to the organization Commonly-used training tools: classroom instruction, on-the-job training, and stretch assignments (similar to on-the-job because also a learning by doing situation, but here you’re given a task that’s harder than usual to see if you’re really ready to get promoted) Workforce Composition : the aggregate profile of the organization’s individual members; it typically highlights diversity of homogeneity of individual differences: Surface-Level Differences : easily observable characteristics, can literally be seen; tend to be measured most by the organization, which often leads to court cases Deep - Level Differences : underlying, difficult-to-observe characteristics; show diversity beyond race, gender, ex. political party preferences, values, background, attitudes Three Common Arguments for Increasing Workforce Diversity (most focus on surface-level diff): 1. Varied experiences of diverse employees can improve managerial decision-making 2. Diversity can increase the retention of valued organizational members 3. Diversity is expected or required by other firms Research tells us that Diversity is a “Double-Edged Sword” because it: (1) offers benefits of creative problem solving because it allows for multiple points of view, but (2) it also brings increased costs of conflict which arise because of it. Conflict then can inhibit problem solving ever more so when an organization is diverse at the deep-level. Bias in Performance Assessment (Research shows….) 1. Managers rate subordinates like themselves higher (“Similar-to-me” or Homophily bias, the idea of “I love myself” and trust people who are more like me) 2. They also rate subordinates with high-status characteristics higher ( Halo Effect ); ex. Trump prefers to hirer Wharton and HBS graduates 3. When a person does not fit the stereotypical image of a role, the person is evaluated more extremely 13
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( Salience Effect ) Performance = Motivation x Ability , so what motivates people? 1. Expectancy Theory (V.I.E.) Valence, Instrumentality, Effort ; developed by Vroom a. Efforts 1> Performance 2> Outcomes (3) i. (1) Expectancy : perceptions about the extent to which effort will result in performance; if you work hard, do you think you’ll actually do better? ii. (2) Instrumentality : perception about the extent to which performance will result in attaining desired outcomes; do you really have a chance? Will doing this actually get you to the top or allow you to perform best?
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