3 prey manipulation prey manipulation raptorial legs

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3 Prey Manipulation Prey Manipulation Raptorial legs Prey manipulation Mouthpart modifications Piercing and sucking mouthparts Mandibles Dragonflies Labium Parasitoids Insect larva develops inside another insect Sometimes multiple parasitoids Slow or rapid development Pupates and emerges from host Egg, larva, pupa or adult hosts Hymenoptera Adult oviposits into host Antennae facilitate finding a hidden host
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4 Diptera Female lays egg on or near host. First- instar larva often crawls to host and bores into it Parasitoid larva undergoes hypermetamorphosis inside host Parasitoid Host Use Many parasitoids are specialists, lots of interest in parasitoid host range Discriminate between parasitized and unparasitized hosts Host marking by first parasitoid Superparasitism Host receives multiple eggs from – One individual – Different individuals of same species Hyperparasitism Parasitoids of parasitoids Evolved several times – Obligate – Facultative • Hymenoptera • Diptera • Coleoptera Hyperparasitism Tachinid parasitoid of beetles
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5 Phorid fly attacking beetles Parasitoid attack on aphids
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