3 disk headed stalks bear antheridia where

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Chapter 28 / Exercise 14
Biology
Martin/Solomon
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3. Disk-headed stalks bear antheridia, where flagellated sperm produced. 4. Umbrella -headed stalks bear archegonia, where eggs are produced. Following fertilization, tiny sporophytes arise from the archegonia. 17.3 Seedless Vascular Plants 1. Place a check mark beside the phrases that describe seedless vascular plants: Independent gametophyte Gametophyte dependent on sporophyte, which has vascular tissue Flagellated sperm Sperm protected from drying out 1. Which listing listing ( or ) would expect to find in a plant fully adapted to a land environment? . Explain. It is closer to land. Are seedless vascular plants fully adapted to living on land? Explain your answer. No because they live closer to water. Observation: Lycophytes Lycophytes are commonly called club mosses. Lycophytes are representative of the first vascular plants to have stems, roots, and leaves. The leaves are called microphylls because they only have one strand of vascular tissue. Among club mosses, you will examine the ground pines ( Lycopodium ) and the spike mosses ( Selaginella ). Ground Pines 1. Examine a living or preserved specimen of Lycopodium (Fig. 17.9). 2. Note the shape and the size of the microphylls and the branches of the aerial (erect) stems. 3. Note the terminal clusters of leaves, called strobili, that are club-shaped and bear sporangia. The yellow color of the spore wall is caused by a pigment called sporopollenin. Sporopollenin protects against UV radiation and desiccation. 4. Label strobili, leaves, aerial stem, and root in Figure 17.9. Aerial stems are erect; rhizomes are horizontal stems. 5. Examine a prepared slide of a Lycopodium that shows the sporangia with spores inside. Lycopodium is homosporous, which means they produce one type of spore. The spore develops into a tiny microscopic gametophyte that remains in the soil. Spike Mosses One type of spike moss that lives in the desert of western Texas is called the resurrection plant because it dries out completely but will become green again within hours of receiving plentiful water. Even though nonseed plants can live in dry environments, they require an outside source of moisture to reproduce because they produce flagellated (swimming) sperm. 1. Examine living or preserved specimens of Selaginella (Fig. 17.10).
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Biology
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Chapter 28 / Exercise 14
Biology
Martin/Solomon
Expert Verified
2. Examine a prepared slide of a Selaginella strobilus. Note that Selaginella produces two types of spores and is, therefore, called heterosporous. One spore is a microspore that develops into a male gametophyte and the other type of spore is a megaspore that develops into a female gametophyte. Observation: Pteridophytes The whisk ferns, horsetails, and ferns are often grouped together as pteridophytes. Whisk Ferns Psilotum is representative of whisk ferns, named for their resemblance to whisk brooms. 1. Examine a preserved specimen of Psilotum, and note that it has no leaves. The underground stem, called a rhizome, gives off upright, aerial stems with a dichotomous branching pattern, where bulbous sporangia are located (Fig. 17.11). What generation are you examining? Lycopodium 1.

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