Leads to the deterioration of fabric properties and

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leads to the deterioration of fabric properties and produces foul smells, skins irri- tation, and cross-infections (Subhash and Sarkar Ajoy 2010 ). Microbes are small organisms that cannot be seen by the naked eye and include a variety of microorganisms such as bacteria, algae, and fungi (Natarajan 2002 ). Encapsulation involves covering small solid, liquid, or gaseous substrates by means of a polymeric or inorganic shell. The resulting capsules or particles normally range from micrometres to millimetres in size (Holme 2002 ). The microencapsulation has multivaried applications that include controlled release of the active components, particle coating, fl avour stabilization, taste masking, physical/chemical stabilization, improvement in shelf life, and prevention of exposure of the active material to the surroundings (Bhoomika et al. 2007 ). Two common technologies can be used to obtain such nanocapsules and microcapsules, namely the interfacial polymerization of a monomer and the interfacial deposition of a preformed polymer (Shilpa 2004 ). Denim has become very popular due to its suitability for many occasions rather than merely complementing a rugged style, and is also used irrespective of demographic differences (Srikanth 2010 ). The durability of denim as only the warp yarns go through the dyeing process, while the weft yarn is left natural without undergoing any chemical process. This is the advantage of yarn-dyed fabric over piece-dyed fabric (Thies 2005 ). The denim wear is gaining importance tremendously each year and has also increased its worldwide market share unpredictably during the past few decades. The consumer needs have been focussed towards the latest developments and new styles, and also there is increased awareness of special fi nishes and process treatments given to the garment to make them ecofriendly and user-friendly. The discussion herein focuses on screening for the antimicrobial activity of the natural herbs and providing the denim fabric with the antimicrobial fi nish from the screened herbal extracts. AATCC methods are followed relating to the combinations and conditions. Microencapsulation and nanoencapsulation methods have been used to increase the washing durability of the antimicrobial fi nish provided from the herbal extracts. 5.3 Technical Details For the application of antimicrobial fi nish, 100 % cotton denim fabric has been used. The antimicrobial extract has been obtained using the herbs R. communis (leaves), S. auriculata (leaves), and E. hirta (leaves, stem and fl ower). The collected plants have been dried at a temperature range of 100 140 °C, as they cannot be stored without drying, thereby preventing the breakdown of important compounds and contamination by microorganisms (Sumithra and Vasugi Raaja 2012 ). The fabric has been primarily washed with distilled water, air-dried, and then used for herbal fi nishing. Dip technique has been used to fi nish the fabric with herbal extract.
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  • Fall '19
  • N. Gokarneshan

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