internal cooperation. A worthy scheme was stillborn in 1928 when the latifundistas (large landowners) resisted the introduction into the countryside of compulsory wages and conditions arbitration committees (comités paritarios) which were already operating successfully in urban areas.○new roads were built and old ones tarmacked; an extended railway network included the first trans-Pyrenees rail link between Spain and France; and 60-80 million pesetas per annum were allocated to hydro-electric schemes. Two international exhibitions in 1929 promoted tourism and Spain's image of national regeneration, celebrating Spanish achievement past and present○Although Rivera banned the anarcho-syndicalist trade union, the CNT, and secured thecooperation of the moderate Socialist trade union, the UGT, he was never able to ensure united and consistent left-wing support.●The Directorio Civil/ Civil Governing Board (1925-1930)○The Civil Directory constitutes the second and last period of the Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera in Spain. It was named after the name given to it by the government appointed by Miguel Primo de Rivera in December 1925 and which replaced the military Directorate that had held power after the triumph of Primo de Rivera's coup of September 1923. The purpose of the The dictator was to stabilize his regime "thanks to the creation of a civil support base". But the institutionalization project failed and Primo de Rivera presented the resignation toKing Alfonso XIII, who had also withdrawn his support, in January 1930, giving way to the "Dictablanda" of General Berenguer.●The Dictablanda/Benevolent Dictatorship (1930-1931)○Dámaso Berenguerreplaced Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbanejaas the head of the ruling military junta (or "directorio militar") and attempted to reduce tensions in the country by repealing some of the harsher measures that had been introduced by the latter. ●The Government of Damaso Berenguer (1930-1931) ○As prime minister, Berenguer repealed some of the harsher measures introduced by Primo de Rivera, earning his regime the nickname dictablanda( the toothless dictatorship, blandameaning soft, – as opposed to the preceding dictadura, durabeing the Spanish word for hard) or Parum Mentula. He also faced a number of problems – increasing demands for the abolition of the monarchy; disorganisation among the country's political parties after seven years of repression making the calling of prompt elections an impossible task; labour unrest; and at least one militaryuprising.