The agent, 2.The route of transmission, 3.The host 4.The environment. 5.Combined control strategies.
CONTROLLING THE AGENTDisease control can be achieved via the destruction of the agent either by:1.Using drugs that kill the agent in agents that live in the body, 2.Use of antiseptics, sterilization, incineration or radiation for agents which live outside the body.
INTERRUPTING TRANSMISSIONControl measures are instituted to impede the movement of an agent from reservoir to the host. Many methods of control have been developed to interrupt transmission because the agent is most vulnerable when travelling to the host.
METHODS USED TO INTERRUPT TRANSMISSION:1.Quarantine or isolation2.Giving vaccination/prophylaxis to contacts3.Improving environmental health4.Destroying/vaccinating animal reservoir5.Proper Cooking of food and 6.Boling and proper water treatment7.Vector control
HOST PROTECTIONThe host can be protected by:1.Physical methods (mosquito nets, clothing, housing, repellants) 2.Vaccination against specific diseases or by taking regular prophylaxis.3.Improvement of personal hygiene
ENVIRONMENTThe environment of the host can be improved by1.Improvement of housing2.Improvement of communications3.Provision of safe water4.Proper disposal of excreta and waste;5.Others, such as meat inspection and hygiene.
THE BURDEN OF COMMUNICABLEDISEASECommunicable diseases account for 14.2 million deaths each year. Six causes account for almost half of all premature deaths, mostly in children and young adults, and account for almost 80% of all deaths from infectious diseases:
1.Acute respiratory infections (3.76 million)2.HIV/AIDS (2.8 million)3.Diarrhoeal diseases (1.7 million)4.Tuberculosis (1.6 million)5.Malaria (1 million)6.Measles (0.8 million)Most of these deaths occur in low-income countries.
•Emerging disease is a disease that has never been recognized before: E.g., HIV/AIDS is an emerging disease, as is severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (vCJD)Emerging and re-emerging Infectious Disease
•Re-emerging diseases are those that have been around for decades or centuries, but have come back in a different form or a different location: E.g., West Nile virus in the Western hemisphere, monkeypox in the United States, and dengue rebounding in Brazil and other
Emerging diseases such as HIV, viral haemorrhagic fevers, new variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), as well as reemerging diseases including diphtheria, yellow fever, anthrax, plague, dengue and influenza place a large and unpredictable
EMERGING VIRAL DISEASESHIV/AIDS The viral haemorrhagic fevers include: Ebola, Marburg, Crimean-Congo, yellow fever, West Nile and dengue.