The agent 2 The route of transmission 3 The host 4 The environment 5 Combined

The agent 2 the route of transmission 3 the host 4

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The agent, 2. The route of transmission, 3. The host 4. The environment. 5. Combined control strategies.
CONTROLLING THE AGENT Disease control can be achieved via the destruction of the agent either by: 1. Using drugs that kill the agent in agents that live in the body, 2. Use of antiseptics, sterilization, incineration or radiation for agents which live outside the body.
INTERRUPTING TRANSMISSION Control measures are instituted to impede the movement of an agent from reservoir to the host. Many methods of control have been developed to interrupt transmission because the agent is most vulnerable when travelling to the host.
METHODS USED TO INTERRUPT TRANSMISSION: 1. Quarantine or isolation 2. Giving vaccination/prophylaxis to contacts 3. Improving environmental health 4. Destroying/vaccinating animal reservoir 5. Proper Cooking of food and 6. Boling and proper water treatment 7. Vector control
HOST PROTECTION The host can be protected by: 1. Physical methods (mosquito nets, clothing, housing, repellants) 2. Vaccination against specific diseases or by taking regular prophylaxis. 3. Improvement of personal hygiene
ENVIRONMENT The environment of the host can be improved by 1. Improvement of housing 2. Improvement of communications 3. Provision of safe water 4. Proper disposal of excreta and waste; 5. Others, such as meat inspection and hygiene.
THE BURDEN OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASE Communicable diseases account for 14.2 million deaths each year. Six causes account for almost half of all premature deaths, mostly in children and young adults, and account for almost 80% of all deaths from infectious diseases:
1. Acute respiratory infections (3.76 million) 2. HIV/AIDS (2.8 million) 3. Diarrhoeal diseases (1.7 million) 4. Tuberculosis (1.6 million) 5. Malaria (1 million) 6. Measles (0.8 million)  Most of these deaths occur in low-income countries.
CD, MCH, Malnutrition, = 30% CVDs 30% Injuries 9% Ca 13% C hron i c RSD 7% D M 2% O ther c h r on i c di se ase s 9%
Emerging disease is a disease that has never been recognized before: E.g., HIV/AIDS is an emerging disease, as is severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (vCJD) Emerging and re-emerging Infectious Disease
Re-emerging diseases are those that have been around for decades or centuries, but have come back in a different form or a different location: E.g., West Nile virus in the Western hemisphere, monkeypox in the United States, and dengue rebounding in Brazil and other
Emerging diseases such as HIV , viral haemorrhagic fevers, new variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), as well as reemerging diseases including diphtheria, yellow fever, anthrax, plague, dengue and influenza place a large and unpredictable
EMERGING VIRAL DISEASES HIV/AIDS The viral haemorrhagic fevers include: Ebola, Marburg, Crimean-Congo, yellow fever, West Nile and dengue.

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