Invasive cervical cancer pulmonary tb recurring

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–Invasive cervical cancer –Pulmonary TB –Recurring bacterial pneumonia
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23 Incidence of AIDS Cases in the United States 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Date of Diagnosis Number of Cases pre-82 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005
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24 1999 Definition of HIV infection Detection of: • HIV DNA or RNA • or HIV p24 capsid protein • or isolation of HIV (viral culture)
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26 Prevalence describes a proportion (typically expressed as a percentage) = by comparing the number of people found to have the condition with the total number of people studied usually expressed as a fraction, as a percentage or as the number of cases per 10,000 or 100,000 people Prevalence is distinct from incidence . = measurement of all individuals affected by the disease at a particular time incidence = measurement of the number of new individuals who contract a disease during a particular period of time.
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27 HIV attacks the T helper cells T helper cells mediate the adaptive/specific immunity Opportunistic infections What are the most common OI seen in AIDS patients?
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28 Most Common Opportunistic Infections: • Pneumocystis pneumonia • Tuberculosis • Cytomegalovirus • Others: Candida, Herpes, Salmonella Most common Cancers: • Kaposi’s sarcoma • Lymphoma • Invasive Cervical cancer
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29
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30 CDC Stages of HIV infection Stage I = acute HIV infection Symptoms = fatigue, mild fever, sore muscles, occasional diarrhea and onset of swollen lymph nodes Stage II = asymptomatic or latency Stage III = persistent generalized lymphadenopathy AIDS-Related Complex (ARC) Stage IV = AIDS
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31 CDC Stages of HIV Infections (opportunistic) (latency) (AIDS-Related Complex)
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32 Decline of CD4+ (Helper) T Lymphocytes I II (latency) III (ARC) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- AIDS CDC Stage Normal T cell count = 800-1,000 Fig. 4.3, Text
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33 Correlation of CD4 T Cell Levels with Stage of HIV Disease # of T Cells In Blood Symptoms Stage of HIV Disease Above 500 Few or none Asymptomatic (Latency) 200-500 Mild-moderate infection AIDS Related Complex Less than 200 Severe infection AIDS
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