The source for developing the big picture was data analysis across within the

The source for developing the big picture was data

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focussed). The source for developing the “big picture” was data analysis across and within the matrix. Any “outliers” that may challenge the “big picture” were noted. For example, only one Asian of the 36 ethnic operators welcomed tax audits, and reasons were sought as to why this was so. Further analysis of his behaviour could be tied back to his cultural value of ensuring the tax authority viewed him as being law abiding to prevent future audits.
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86 The second phase is to select pertinent quotations and providing “thick descriptions” of the participants. The “thick description” also reveals the participant’s depth of emotion, the ways they had organised their world, their thoughts about what was happening, their experiences and their basic perceptions (Loftland, 1971). Commonalities and differences between the practices, perceptions and decisions of the ethnic groups are highlighted and interpreted using Hofstede’s (1980, 2001) framework. The aim is not to generalise the findings across cases and time, but rather to make careful comparative case analysis and extrapolate patterns for possible transferability (Patton, 2002). Developing a working hypothesis that may be relevant to other participants is the final stage. Unlike the quantitative approach, the researcher is striving for analytical generalisation and not statistical generalisations. Analytical generalisations allow for the case to be applied to other cases with similar conditions and circumstances. Hence this study is not generalisable as descriptions of what other ethnic operators do, but it is generalisable as descriptions of what any other ethnic operator can do if they have the same array of circumstances as the sample groups (Perakyla, 2005). Often quantitative researchers question the reliability, validity and trustworthiness of qualitative research due to the different ontological and epistemological assumptions. Their concerns and how this study addresses these issues are discussed in the next section. 5.8 Reliability, validity, and trustworthiness issues of qualitative research Positivists often raise the concerns for reliability in qualitative research, due to the researcher’s direct participation in the fieldwork (Alm, 1991; Kirk & Miller, 1986). To address the reliability concerns of the inquiry, Arksey and Knight (1999) suggest providing evidence that the interview accounts are a fair representation of the participants’ accounts. Hence, participants’ verifications were carried out to enhance the credibility (validity) of the research (Bauer & Aarts, 2000; Patton, 2002) and to ensure that the participants’ accounts were correctly understood and interpreted by the researcher. A common comment received from the participants was that the transcription adequately reflects their account, with only five requesting amendments, due to confidential information.
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  • Fall '16
  • tax compliance, SME Operators

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