Since Congress was adjourned until December 1865 Johnson essentially had

Since congress was adjourned until december 1865

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Since Congress was adjourned until December 1865, Johnson essentially had control of legislation without congressional intervention (Presidential Reconstruction) · Johnson provided amnesty for all ex-rebels except for the high ranking/rich planters · This was because they viewed Johnson as “white trash” and uneducated his entire life · Later would allow southern planters to pardon for their rights · Impeached in February 24, 1868 in the House, and charged for “treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors,” however the final vote was 1 off of 2/3 rds in the Senate. Appomattox · The last major battle between the Union and Confederate troops · April 9, 1865 · Confederate State Army General Robert E. Lee surrendered to the Union army at the Appomattox Court House · After this surrender, a series of other Confederate states proceeded to surrender, essentially marking the end of the Civil War Freedmen’s Bureau · Created in 1865 by Congress that was intended to last 1 year · Created to help former African American slaves by providing education, food, shelter, and medical/legal assistance · Authorized the rent and sell of 800,000 acres of abandoned and confiscated land · Johnson revokes this and gives land back to the southern planters · The Bureau was shut down in 1872 due to a shortage of funds, racism, and pressure from the South “Forty Acres and a Mule” · Part of the provisions of the Freedman’s Bureau · Freedmen generally expected to legally claim 40 acres of land and a mule after the end of the Civil War · Sherman’s Special Orders No. 15 took planters coastal lands from Charleston to Jacksonville and gave them to former slaves · Eventually reversed by President Andrew Jackson who gave the land back to the Southern Planters Black Codes · Laws passed in 1865 which legally bound former slaves and poor whites back onto farms by use of debt and low pay · Under the Black Codes African Americans could: sue, get married, and own property
· Goal of Black Codes was to restore slavery in all but the name · Annual Labor Contracts (African Americans must have a labor contract) · “Negro Catchers” (If you quit you could be chased down) · Vagrancy Laws (Could be forced into involuntary labor if you were a vagrant) · Apprentice Statutes · Can’t rent land or houses in cities Scalawags · Southern whites who supported reconstruction · Gained power by taking advantage of the Reconstruction Laws of 1867 · Generally seen as traitors · Many were poor prior to the Civil War · Most famous is James Longstreet (Robert E. Lee’s right-hand man) who sides with the Republican Party after the war. Freedmen · Former slaves · Freedmen are able to vote and serve under the US government following the Civil War · Under slavery, it was illegal to teach slaves how to read or write · More than anything, Freedmen want public schools for whites and blacks in the South · One of the greatest achievements of Radical Reconstruction Government is that they build public schools across the South for whites and blacks.

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