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Since Congress was adjourned until December 1865, Johnson essentially had control of legislation without congressional intervention (Presidential Reconstruction)·Johnson provided amnesty for all ex-rebels except for the high ranking/rich planters·This was because they viewed Johnson as “white trash” and uneducated his entire life·Later would allow southern planters to pardon for their rights·Impeached in February 24, 1868 in the House, and charged for “treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors,” however the final vote was 1 off of 2/3rds in the Senate.Appomattox·The last major battle between the Union and Confederate troops·April 9, 1865·Confederate State Army General Robert E. Lee surrendered to the Union army at the Appomattox Court House·After this surrender, a series of other Confederate states proceeded to surrender, essentially marking the end of the Civil WarFreedmen’s Bureau·Created in 1865 by Congress that was intended to last 1 year·Created to help former African American slaves by providing education, food, shelter, and medical/legal assistance·Authorized the rent and sell of 800,000 acres of abandoned and confiscated land·Johnson revokes this and gives land back to the southern planters·The Bureau was shut down in 1872 due to a shortage of funds, racism, and pressure from the South“Forty Acres and a Mule”·Part of the provisions of the Freedman’s Bureau·Freedmen generally expected to legally claim 40 acres of land and a mule after the end of the Civil War·Sherman’s Special Orders No. 15 took planters coastal lands from Charleston to Jacksonvilleand gave them to former slaves·Eventually reversed by President Andrew Jackson who gave the land back to the Southern PlantersBlack Codes·Laws passed in 1865 which legally bound former slaves and poor whites back onto farms by use of debt and low pay·Under the Black Codes African Americans could: sue, get married, and own property
·Goal of Black Codes was to restore slavery in all but the name·Annual Labor Contracts (African Americans must have a labor contract)·“Negro Catchers” (If you quit you could be chased down)·Vagrancy Laws (Could be forced into involuntary labor if you were a vagrant)·Apprentice Statutes·Can’t rent land or houses in citiesScalawags·Southern whites who supported reconstruction·Gained power by taking advantage of the Reconstruction Laws of 1867·Generally seen as traitors·Many were poor prior to the Civil War·Most famous is James Longstreet (Robert E. Lee’s right-hand man) who sides with the Republican Party after the war.Freedmen·Former slaves·Freedmen are able to vote and serve under the US government following the Civil War·Under slavery, it was illegal to teach slaves how to read or write·More than anything, Freedmen want public schools for whites and blacks in the South·One of the greatest achievements of Radical Reconstruction Government is that they build public schools across the South for whites and blacks.