Management is advocated in numerous places people may

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management is advocated in numerous places, people may be leaded to mistrust the institutions of authority, implementation by order or command is problematic 2. Virtually all of us work in positions in which, in order to accomplish our job and objectives, we need the cooperation of others who do not fall within our direct chain of command. We depend, in other words, on people outside our purview of authority, whom we could not command, reward, or punish even if we wanted to. The hierarchical authority of all executives and administrators is limited, and for most of us, it is quite limited compared to the scope of what we need in order to do our jobs effectively. 3. What happens if the person at the top of the pyramid, the one whose orders are being followed, is incorrect? When authority is vested in a single individual, the organization can face grave difficulties if that person’s insight or leadership begins to fail 3) way 2: shared vison or org. culture to develop a strongly shared vision or organizational culture if people share a common set of goals, a common perspective on what to do and how to accomplish it, and a common vocabulary that allows them to coordinate their behaviour, then command and hierarchical authority are of much less importance. People will be able to work cooperatively without waiting for orders from the upper levels of the company managing through a shared vision and with a strong organizational culture has been a very popular prescription for organizations 132
2 problems with use of vision and culture as way of getting things done: 1. Building a shared conception of the world takes time and effort. There are instances when the organization is in crisis or confronts situations in which there is simply not sufficient time to develop shared premises about how to respond. For this very reason, the military services rely not only on techniques that build loyalty and esprit de corps, but also on a hierarchical chain of command and a tradition of obeying orders 2. The problem of how, in a strong culture, new ideas that are inconsistent with that culture can penetrate. A strong culture really constitutes an organizational example, which prescribes how to look at things, what are appropriate methods and techniques for solving problems, and what are the important issues and problems 3) Way 3: use of power and influence - With power and influence the emphasis is on method rather than the structure - it is possible to wield power and influence without necessarily having or using formal authority. Nor is it necessary to rely on a strong organizational culture and the homogeneity that this often implies - Of course, the process of implementation through power and influence is not without problems of its own. What is important is to see power and influence as one of a set of ways of getting things done – not the only way, but an important way Summarize ways of getting things done: - Implementation becoming more difficult because: o

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