KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY Molecules are in constant motion Motion is random

Kinetic molecular theory molecules are in constant

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KINETIC-MOLECULAR THEORY Molecules are in constant motion Motion is random Molecules collide Some collisions break bonds Then new bonds can be formed More detail in Ch 6. 6
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5.1 Thermodynamics –study of energy, work, and heat Exothermic reactions – release energy /typically spontaneous Endothermic reactions – use energy/typically nonspontaneous 7
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Enthalphy (H) – heat Entropy (S) - randomness laws of thermodynamics 1 st – energy cannot be created or destroyed 2 nd – entropy tends to increase 8
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5.3 Kinetics – study of speed (rate) of reactions Catalyst – increase the reaction rate Heat, enzymes, electricity Activation Energy 9
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WHAT AFFECTS REACTION RATES? Structure of reactant What type of bonds? Size and Shape Concentration of reactant Temperature Physical state of reactants (solid, liquid, gas) Presence of catalyst 10
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5.4 Chemical Equilibrium Speed of forward and reverse reactions are equal Affected by heat, concentration and pressure Subway – example of dynamic equilibrium LeChatelier’s principle If a stress is placed on a system at equilibrium, then it will respond by altering to minimize stress 11
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A + B C + D Predict shift based on: Adding reactants (shift towards products – right) Removing reactants (shift towards reactants – left) Adding products (shift toward reactants – left) Removing products (shift toward products – right) Adding heat Exothermic (shift toward reactants – left) Endothermic (shift toward products – right) Removing heat Exothermic (shift toward products – right) Endothermic (shift towards reactants – left) Adding or removing a catalyst (no shift) 12
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