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CHAPTER 33.Need recognition
External searchExternal sources of information include:Personal sources (e.g., friends, relatives, or co-workers, face-to-face or via social media)Marketer-controlled sources (e.g., advertising, salespeople, displays, Internet)Public sources (e.g., articles in print media, reports on TV, Internet discussion boards)Personal experience (e.g., past use, actually handling, examining or testing the product)Internal searchThe initial search effort often consists of an attempt to scan information stored in memory to recall past experiences and/or knowledge regarding purchase alternativesMarketer induced:NA4.Maslow’s needs theorySelf-actualization: self-development and realizationsEsteem needs: self-esteem, recognition, statusSocial needs: sense of belonging, love Safety needs: security, protectionPhysiological needs: hunger, thirst5.
Market-controlled commercial source: 6.Selective perceptionThe perceptual process involving the filtering or screening of exposure, attention, comprehension, and retention. (See figure below) Cognitive perception: Selective trigger: SensationThe immediate, direct response of the senses (taste, smell, sight, touch, and hearing) to a stimulus. Perception uses these senses to create a representation of the stimulus. Marketers plan certain marketing stimuli to achieve consumers’ physiological reactions. Selective perception process7.
Limited problem solving/Extended problem solving: Occurs when consumers have limited experience in purchasing a particular product or service and little or no knowledge of the brands available and/or the criteria to use in making a purchase decision. Consumers learn what attributes or criteria should be used in making a purchase decision and how the alternatives perform on these dimensions. HeuristicSimplified or basic decision rules that can be used by a consumer to make a purchase choice. Heuristics are easy to use and are highly adaptive to specific environmental situations (such as aretail store)Consumers in a family store use price-based heuristics (buy the least expensive brand) orpromotion-based heuristics (choose the brand for a price reduction through a coupon, rebate)Routine Response Behaviour/Routine Problem SolvingThe decision process consists of little more than recognizing the need, performing a quick internal search, and making the purchase. The consumer spends little or no effort with external search or alternative evaluation.