complex, interesting and challenging tasks surrounding a complete unit of work. This should give a greater sense of achievement. Job enrichment involves adding vertically to a job by giving the position planning and controlling responsibilities. Job enrichment is designed to increase worker motivation by giving them responsibility, and opportunities for professional growth and achievement.In many cases, a job can get so specialized that it becomes boring. Job enrichmentis often a solution for this, and is basically the opposite of job specialization; it involves giving additional responsibilities. Job enrichment involves increasing the depth of the job--not giving just more work, but adding job planning and controlling elements. This is in contrast to job enlargement,
which involves just adding more of the same work--the worker gets no satisfaction out of job enlargement, but job enrichment can make a job more satisfying.TRAININGOn-The-Job Training- employee learns while he is productively employed-often being coached while he performs his regular job. On-the-job training (OJT) is probably the oldest type of employee training around. Most appropriate for a simple taskVestibule Traininginvolves in-house training, but it is in an area separate from the normal pressures of the position. What the employee produces during Vestibule Training may be actually used by the company, but the important thing is that he is in a separate area specifically for training.Apprenticeshipis a type of training which involves a long-term obligation to work under a skilled worker in return for training in that skill. Apprenticeship involves working under a skilled worker to learn his trade. Rotationis considered a type of training--it involves moving employees through highly diversified and differentiated jobs to give them a variety of experience.TYPES OF AUTHORITY (and responsibility)Authority- legitimate power determined by the organizational structure. Authority involves rules, roles, and relations. Rules legitimize authority. Role is position or office with authority inherent in the position, not in the person. Relations are related to credibility, obtained through experience.Line authoritymanagers have the formal power to direct and control immediate subordinates. The superior issues orders and is responsible for the result—the subordinate obeys and is responsible only for executing the order according to instructions.Functional authorityis where managers have formal power over a specific subset of activities. For instance, the Production Manager may have the line authority to decide whether and when a new machine is needed but the Controller demands that a Capital Expenditure Proposal is submitted first, showing that the investment will have a yield of at least x%; or, a legal department may have functional authority to interfere in any activity that could have legal consequences. This authority would not be functional but it would rather be staff authority if such interference is "advice" rather than "order".Staff authorityis granted to staff specialists in their areas of expertise. It is not a real authority
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- Winter '12
- Management, scientific management