Applying simple vb theory results in the following

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Applying simple VB theory results in the following prediction for methane bonding: C 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 2p x + + - - H H 2p z C According to this model, the C is bonded to only two H-atoms with an H-C-H bond of _______ ° . This is NOT what is observed for methane! II. HYBRIDIZATION OF ATOMIC ORBITALS A. sp 3 hybridization A carbon atom has four unpaired electrons available for bonding once a 2s-electron is __________________ to an empty 2-p orbital. 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z C (4 valence e - s) E orbitals 2sp 3 2sp 3 2sp 3 2sp 3 e - promotion The sp 3 hybrid orbitals are equivalent and degenerate. They differ only in their ___________________ in space. 2s 2p z 2p x 2p y - + - + - + + - - - + + + - + four sp 3 hybrid orbitals 2
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