Parallelism refers to a grammatical or structural similarity between sentences

Parallelism refers to a grammatical or structural

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Parallelism : refers to a grammatical or structural similarity between sentences or parts of a sentence. It involves an arrangement of words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs so that elements of equal importance are equally developed and similarly phrased. It shows that the ideas or words are parallel or similar. It evokes a comparison. He tried to make the law clear, precise, and equitable. “It was neither elated by the ambition of fame, nor depressed by the apprehension of contempt.” (Edward Gibbon) It can be used in poetry as well. I’ll give my jewels for a set of beads, My gorgeous palace for a hermitage, My gay apparel for an almsman’s gown, My figured goblets for a dish of wood… (Shakespeare: Richard II ) Notice the repetition of “my” which has the effect of making this a highly personal and subjective piece. Antithesis : where the elements arranged in parallel are sharply opposed. The juxtaposition of contrasting ideas. “Our knowledge separates as well as unites; our orders disintegrate as well as bind; our art brings us together and sets us apart.” Climax : writer arranges ideas in order of importance. I spent the day cleaning house, reading poetry, and putting my life in order. Chiasmus : (Chi -as-mus) a type of rhetorical balance in which the second part is syntactically balanced against the first but with the parts reversed (sometimes repeating the same words). “Flowers are lovely, love is flowerlike.” (Coleridge) “And so, my fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.” (John F. Kennedy) R E P E T I T I O N The general purpose is for enhancing rhythm and creating emphasis. What is the purpose of the repetition in this piece? How does it contribute to meaning? “…government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the earth.” (Abraham Lincoln: Address at Gettysburg) Notice the emphasis on “people,” the key ingredient in a democracy and in preserving that democracy. Look for repetition of key words, phrases, and sentence patterns. The repetition means the writer wants to emphasize the idea, image, or metaphor. Epanalepsis : (ep-an-a-lep-sis) repetition at the end of a clause of the word or words that occurred at the beginning. Common sense is not so common. (Voltaire) “Blood hath bought blood, and blows answer blows: Strength match’d with strength, and power confronted power.” (Shakespeare: King John) Epistrophe : repetition of the same word or group of words at the ends of successive clauses, lines, or sentences (opposite of anaphora). For truth is one, and right is ever one. (Spenser) Shylock: I’ll have my bond! Speak not against my bond! I have sworn an oath that I will have my bond! (Shakespeare: Merchant of Venice) Anaphora : the same expression (word or words) is repeated at the beginning of two or more successive clauses, lines, or sentences.
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