The 1 per day level is generally used for the least

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of goods and services between countries. The $1 per day level is generally used for the least developed countries, primarily African; the $2-per-day level is used for middle-income economies such as those of East Asia and Latin America. Indian Onion #071009 The most vital ingredient in Indian cooking, the basic element with which all dishes begin and, normally, the cheapest vegetable available, the pink onion is an essential item in the shopping basket of families of all classes. A popular saying holds that you will never starve because you can always afford a roti (a piece of simple, flat bread) and an onion. But in recent weeks, the onion has started to seem an unaffordable luxury for India's poor. Over the past few days, another sharp surge in prices has begun to unsettle the influential urban middle classes. The sudden spike in prices has been caused by large exports to neighboring countries and a shortage of supply . With its capacity for bringing down governments and scarring political careers, the onion plays an explosive role in Indian politics. This week reports of rising onion prices have made front-page news and absorbed the attention of the governing elite. Seatbelt #071010 I am a cyclist and a motorist. I fasten my seatbelt when I drive and wear a helmet on my bike to reduce the risk of injury. I am convinced that these are prudent safety measures. I have persuaded many friends to wear helmets on the grounds that transplant surgeons call those without helmets, "donors on wheels”. But a book on 'Risk’ by my colleague John Adams has made me re-examine my convictions . Adams has completely undermined my confidence in these apparently sensible precautions. What he has persuasively argued, particularly in relation to seat belts, is that the evidence that they do what they are supposed to do is very suspect. This is in spite of numerous claims that seat belts save many thousands of lives every year. 第55页,共111页
There is remarkable data on the years 1970 and 1978 countries in which the wearing of seat belts is compulsory have had on average about 5 per cent more road accident deaths following the introduction of the law. In the UK, road deaths have decreased steadily from about 7,000 a year in 1972 to just over 4,000 in 1989. There is no evidence in the trend for any effect of the seat belt law that was introduced in 1983. Moreover, there is evidence that the number of cyclists and pedestrians killed actually increased by about 10 per cent. Ocean floor #071012 The ocean floor is home to many unique communities of plants and animals. Most of these marine ecosystems are near the water surface, such as the Great Barrier Reef, a 2,000-km long coral formation off the northeastern coast of Australia. Coral reefs, like nearly all complex living communities, depend on solar energy for growth (photosynthesis). The sun's energy, however, penetrates at most only about 300 m below the surface of the water. The relatively shallow penetration of solar energy and the sinking of cold, subpolar water combine to make most of the deep ocean floor a frigid environment with few life forms.

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