changes in body position keep the world stable Equilibrioception Multisensory

Changes in body position keep the world stable

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changes in body position; keep the world stable (Equilibrioception) Multisensory Integration - Sensations are processed in different areas of the brain - How do we combine these sensations into a unified whole? - Multisensory Integration: the study of how information from different sensory modalities may be integrated and processed by the nervous system; Modality, Intensity, Location, Duration. Illusion of Multisensory Interrogation - Ventriloquism Caused by manipulated location - McGurk Effect: Manipulating what we see and what we hear Psychophysics - Study of the relationship between physical stimuli and the psychological experiences (sensations and perceptions) produced by them Sensory Threshold (Absolute and Difference) Just-Noticeable Difference Sensory Adaptation - Threshold: a dividing point between energy levels that do and do not have a detectable effect; (sensing vs. not sensing) - Absolute threshold: the smallest amount of energy that a person can detect reliability - Difference Thresholds: the smallest difference in stimulation that can be reliably detected by an observer when two stimuli and compared Just Noticeable Difference (JDN): the smallest change in a stimulus that a person can detect (type of difference threshold) - Each person’s absolute and difference thresholds is different due to differences in the sensory organs, signaling, and the brain. Absolute Threshold Examples - Vision: a single candle flame from 30 miles on a clear night - Hearing: the tick of a watch from 20 feet in total quiet - Smell: one drop of perfume in a 3-room apartment - Touch: the wing of a bee on the cheek, dropped from 1 cm - Taste: one teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water Just-Noticeable Difference Example - Weber’s Law: The JND depends on the magnitude of the original stimulus - The greater the magnitude of the stimulus, the larger the change required before a person can detect that change
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Sensory Adaptation - Gradual decline in sensitivity to a stimulus due to prolonged stimulation Adapt to hot water, cold water, pressure on skin, smells, light, dark, sounds, etc. - Sensory adaptation occurs because our sensory systems evolved to detect changes in sensory input - NOT to be confused with habituation Chapter 7: Learning What Can Babies Do? - Learning: a change in behavior or thought that is due to experience. - Associative Learning: forming associations between events that occur in the environment Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Social learning Pavlov’s Dog - Classic example of classic conditioning - Dogs hooked up to machine that delivered food; device made a clicking noise just before food; dogs eventually began to salivate on hearing the click, even before the food was presented Classical Conditioning - A neutral stimulus begins to evoke a particular response, through its association with another stimulus that naturally evokes that response Terms - Unconditioned Stimulus(US)- the stimulus that evokes an unlearned or natural response (eg. meat) - Unconditioned Response(UR): the unlearned or natural response (eg. salivation)
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