Beginning and end recalling is easy primacy effect

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Beginning and end recalling is easy! Primacy effect : reflecting the superior recall of the earliest items. Happens because of the transfer of early things into long-term memory. Recency effect : the superior recall of the most recent items Happens because of the continued presence of information in short term memory. II. Encoding: entering information A. Effortful and automatic processing - Effortful processing : encoding that is initiated intentionally and requires conscious attention. - Automatic processing : encoding that occurs without intention and requires minimal attention. (knowing the location, but not knowing the concepts) B. Levels of Processing: when deeper is better - Level of processing : the more deeply we process information, the better we will remember it. C. Exposure and Rehearsal - Maintenance rehearsal : involves simple, rote repetition. Rote memorization: keep things in working memory. - Elaborative rehearsal : involves focusing on the meaning of information or expanding on it in some way. Organization; contemplation; relation D. Organization and Imagery 1. Hierarchies and Chunking
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- Organizing material in a hierarchy takes advantage of the principle that memory is enhanced by associations between concepts. Logical hierarchy Chunking 2. Visual Imagery - Dual coding theory : encoding information using both verbal and visual codes enhances memory because the odds improve that at least one of the codes will be available later to support recall. (A fire truck vs jealousy) - Method of loci : a memory aid that associates information which mental images of physical locations. 3. Other Mnemonic Devices - Mnemonic devices are memory aid. Reorganized information into more meaningful units and provide extra cues to help retrieve information from long-term memory. E. How Prior Knowledge shapes encoding 1. Schemas: Our Mental Organizers - A schema is a mental framework- an organized pattern of thought – about some aspect of the word. 2. Schemas, Encoding, and Expertise - Expertise : a process of developing schemas that help encode information into meaningful patterns Example: expert chess players use schemas and chunking to predict/remember the position of chess.
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  • Fall '07
  • GEORGEALDER
  • Psychology, neural network

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