Theorganization rejected the idea that tax had to be an innately unpleasant experience,and set about creating a system of positive interactions based on trust, understandingand fairness. They challenged themselves to make tax a good experience by encouragingpeople to feel engaged as citizens. In this organization, every project is requiredto utilize a user-centred design approach. In the first five years of the transformationprocess, the AT O was supported by the Sydney-based strategy and design consultingfirm 2nd Road and several US-based design experts. Once they had systems up andrunning with a critical mass of trained staff, they left the consultants behind and continuedtransforming themselves from within. The project is expected to be a ten-yearcommitment. This may be the largest and most complete design transformationprojectto be documented to date.3Another example is the Australian company, Suncorp, a top-25 Australian companythat provides financial services (also a client of 2nd Road). In 2006 this organizationbegan working to install design capability with the intent of transforming itselfinto a world-class customer-centred organization. But it has taken a more organic approachthan the AT O. By planting design efforts around the organization at the levelof everyday projects and supporting these through a small, centralized leadership hubwith targeted training, communications and support, they hope gradually to win theorganization over to design from the grassroots level. While slow, it has made steadyprogress. To date more than 900 employees on the operations side have received designtraining and over 1,000 employees have elected to join the design community ofpractice (6 per cent of the total workforce). This was achieved without any executivelevelmandates and relies on voluntary participation and individual initiative. The enthusiasmthat has been awakened for design in this organization is remarkable.The design organization, as such, is an emergent species. Design organizations arethose for which design is the culturally dominant way of working and thinking butDesign Practice in Organizations 193many of these are still experimental or works-in-progress. Full transformation to adesign organization is not always the goal, nor does it need to be, though for any organizationaldesign initiative to thrive there must be a tolerant, if not supportive, environmentor culture and so some aspect of organizational change will always have toaccompany the creation of an internal design capability.Who Are the Designers?In their position paper on transformation, the UK Design Council notes that the designcommunity is experiencing two important shifts: firstly, in where design skills�
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arebeing applied, and secondly, in who is actually doing the designing(Burns et �al. 2006:10). When we introduce design into an organizational context, we are inviting manypeople to the table as designers. Some members of the design community regard ��thisas somewhat dangerous. The argument is that it is better to leave design to the experts,
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