Lecture_4-Overview_of_signaling_cAMP

Slow synaptic transmission g protein coupled or

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“Slow” Synaptic Transmission G protein-coupled or metabotropic receptors •7 hydrophobic transmembrane- spanning regions with a long extracellular N-terminus and long intracellular C-terminus •GPCRs
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GPCR Super-family 3 major types of GPCRs – Gs, Gi/o and Gq – Gt/transducin in photoreceptors – Gg/gustducin in taste buds Type of G protein present determines which intracellular signaling cascade(s) will be affected by ligand binding Certain toxins interact with specific G subunits and inhibit particular intracellular signaling pathways
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Slow Synaptic Transmission G protein-coupled or metabotropic receptors •Guanine nucleotide-binding protein with a heterotrimeric structure ( , , subunits); 20 distinct subunits; 5 and 8 subtypes variability and specificity of cellular actions induced by agonist binding Agonist binding receptor physically associates with subunit GDP exchanged for GTP subunit dissociates from  subunits subunit activates second messenger systems  subunits activate second messenger systems •G protein signaling terminated by the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP and reassociation of the heterotrimer
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Regulation of G protein function Receptor binding guanine nucleotide exchange activation RGS proteins – Regulators of G-protein Signaling – 20 subtypes, localized to specific cell types (e.g., RGS4 in nucleus accumbens
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Slow Synaptic Transmission G protein coupled or...

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