Relearned relative to the time required to learn the

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relearned relative to the time required to learn the material originally 1. method of savings (a measure of retention in which the difference between the # of repetitions originally required to learn a list and the # of repetitions required to relearn the list after a certain amount of time has elapsed) 2. most sensitive test of memory IV. Factors affecting retrieval A. Serial position (where on the list the item appeared) B. Context-dependent memory – info that is better retrieved in the context in which it was encoded and stored, or learned 1. Context becomes encoded along with the material being remembered 2. Reinstating context increases memory 3. Godden & Baddeley (1975) study of recall under water & on the dock as a function of learning under water or on the dock a. Better recall when setting for learning and recall are the SAME C. State-dependent memory – information that is better retrieved in the physiological or emotional state in which it was encoded and stored, or learned 1. Internal body states are encoded with memories 2. Memories easier to retrieve when these body states are entered again 3. Mood congruency effects D. Stress & anxiety 1. Memory is best when stress & anxiety are moderate 2. Memory is worst when stress & anxiety are low OR high V. Memory reconstruction – piecing memory together from a few highlights, using info that may or may not be accurate A. Memory & Eyewitness testimony 1. Eyewitnesses can only remember what they perceive 2. Limits to accuracy of accounts a. impact of wording of questions
Fall 2017 Feldman - 23 b. misinformation effect : the distortion of memory by misleading information that occurs after an event VI. Forgetting A. Rate of forgetting 1. fastest right after initial learning 2. slower for more meaningful material B. Ebbinghaus’s curve of forgetting 1. Used relearning of nonsense syllables to measure how much people forget over time 2. Found: forgetting most rapid at first, then tapers off C. Causes of forgetting 1. Encoding failure – info was never put into LTM in the first place 2. Decay – fading of memory through disuse 3. Interference – major cause of forgetting where info stored before or after a given memory can interfere with the ability to remember it a. retroactive interference – the interference of new learning with the ability to retrieve material learned previously (e.g., study French, then study Spanish, difficulty with FRENCH test) b. proactive interference – the interference by old learning with the ability to retrieve material learned recently(e.g., study French, then study Spanish, difficulty with SPANISH test) 4. Consolidation failure – loss due to organic (brain injury, trauma) disruption while the memory is being formed a. retrograde amnesia – failure to remember events that occurred prior to physical trauma because of the effects of the trauma b. anterograde amnesia – failure to remember events that occurred after physical trauma because of the effects of the trauma (inability to form new long-term memories) 5. Motivated forgetting

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