Changes in womens choice of dress across the

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Changes in women's choice of dress across the ovulatory cycle: naturalistic and laboratory task-based evidence. Durante KM, Li NP, Haselton MG.
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Figure 1. Effects of ovulatory-cycle phase on lapdancer tip earnings per shift in normally cycling women (solid lines) versus women using hormonal contraception (pill users, dashed lines). Over a 60-day period, 18 heterosexual women working as lap-dancers reported day-by-day start or stop of menstruation and their tip earnings from any shift they worked. Normally cycling participants earned US$335 per 5-hr shift during oestrus, US$260 per shift during the luteal phase, and US$185 during menstruation. By contrast, pill users showed no rise in earnings during oestrus, suggesting that the use of pill interrupts cycling attractiveness of women to men. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals. Adapted, with permission, from Ref. [4] . Alexandra Alvergne , Virpi Lummaa Does the contraceptive pill alter mate choice in humans? Trends in Ecology & Evolution Volume 25, Issue 3 2010 171 - 179 Figure 2. Effect of oral contraceptive pill use on women's facial preferences for short- and long-term relationships (short-term versus long-term preferences are proxy for, e.g. relationship during fertile versus infertile menstrual cycle phase, respectively). (a) Each composite image tested for female preferences was formed of 20 male and 20 female facial images of young adults in a neutral pose. Five different images were presented in random order to participants (158 women aged between 16 and 39 years) recording their preferences for short- and long-term contexts. (b) Normally cycling women (non-pill users) preferred less masculine faces in a long-term context compared with a short-term context. Masculinity- related physical traits in men are related to high levels of testosterone [70] , which, because of its associated immunosuppressive effects, is thought to be an indicator of genetic quality because it is sustainable only by an individual having high genetic resistance against pathogens [71] . Context-dependent preferences are adaptive if they maximize: (i) non-genetic material benefits (i.e. parental investment and cooperation) in long-term relationships, and (ii) genetic benefits (e.g. immunocompetence) from short-term or extra-pair partners. Such context-dependent preferences were not displayed by pill users, who consistently preferred feminine features in men. Adapted with permission from Ref. [33] .
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Evolutionary Theory Parental Investment theory Sex is a riskier decision for females They can get pregnant Means kids to care for Out of the reproductive pool for at least 12 months (usually longer with nursing) Need resources Theory predicts men should be more promiscuous than women Theory predicts that men will be less involved as parents if unsure of parentage of the child 100% sure who the mom is Not 100% sure who the dad is
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Recall Rodent Mating Patterns Females compete for male that is mating. Notice female 1 (dominant) takes relatively fewer intromissions but all of dominant male’s ejaculation. Her dominance is expressed by first choice of males to sire her offspring.
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“In most regards, dominance appears to be a boon. High-ranking
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