3. Compare mechanical and chemical digestion.
Mechanical digestion: physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces. Where as chemical digestion is breaking down of food into simpler nutrients that can be used by cell 4. Define the terms “bolus”, “chyme” and “chyle”. Bolus: small rounded mass of substances, especially of chewed food at the moment of swallowing Chyme : the pulpy acidic fluid that passes from the stomach to small intestine, consisting of gastric juices and partly digestive food. Chyle: a milky fluid consisting of fat droplets and lymph, which drains from the lacteals of the small intestine into the lymphatic system during digestion 5.Name and describe 4 typical layers of GI tract.Mucosa: epithelium, lamina propria and musuclaris mucosaeSubmucosa: contains submucosal ENS plexus ( Mesiner’s plexus)Muscularis: inner circular layer and outer longitudinal layer and contains myenteric ENS plexus Serosa: Areolar (adipose ) and epithelium tissue and on esophagus and some other regions 6.Describe the structure of a tooth.Dentition is complete set of teeth ( 32) , deciduous dentition ( baby teeth, 20) and replace after 6years of age. There are 4 types of teeth which are inserted into alveolar processes of mandible and maxillaeIncisors : 6- 9 yearsCanines 9-12 yearsPremolars: 10-12Molars: 7. Which organs of GI tract have unusual layer structure? Give examples. Stomach ( Inner circular, outer longitudinal, and oblique layer) 8.Name the nervous plexuses of the GI tract (parts of ENS) and indicate where each is located.Submucosal plexus ( meisner’s): controls mostly secretion; located submucosal of intestinal wallMyenteric: mostly controls peristalsis; located between longitudinal and circular layers of muscularis externa in the gastrointestinal tract. 9.Name the glands of digestive system and enzymes made by each. What do those enzymes digest? 10. Name salivary glands; describe composition and functions of saliva. Submandibular, parotid, and sublingual. Microscopic glands on cheeks , tongue, and palate. Functions are keeps mouth and other part of digestive system moist, helps to break down carbohydrate and lubricates that passes of food down 11.Name enzymes made by pancreatic gland and describe what each digests.Trypsin: produce in pancreas. It digest proteinTrypsinogen : 12.Which substances are absorbed in the stomach? 13. Name digestive enzymes produced by the stomach. Pepsin, pepsinogen, gastric lipase, lingual lipase
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